grep - Unix, Linux Command - Tutorialspoint

RM System Review 2015 - Is RM System SCAM Or LEGIT? Best Binary Options Trading Software! The Truth About RM Software By Maria Lopez Review

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submitted by CarloTurlington to CarloTurlington [link] [comments]

Reddit K-Pop Census Results 2020

Intro

It almost took us the same amount of time this year as it did last year. We think it's worth the wait. The results are in and we can't wait to share them with you!
This year we've received a tremendous amount of help from u/gates0fdawn. She designed the whole infographic you'll see linked below, we're super grateful she took the time to create this, we think it looks super good.
I would also like to shout out valuable community members who helped us out with both proofreading and giving valuable opinions. One of our Discord Mods: OldWhiskeyGuy from the subreddit discord server helped with proofreading a lot. u/SirBuckeye for valuable input and thoughts as well as industry officials who doesn't want to be named. Super thankful for all the help!
Yet again we kept the age gate, so every account created after August 1st were not allowed to participate in the census.

Click me to view the Census Results!

Breakdown and Comparison

Personal Questions

Where Do You Currently Live?

  • World Region - 56.8% of the participants are based in North America, majority in the US. 22% are in Europe, majority in the UK. 10.3% in Asia, with most users in Philippines, Singapore and India.
  • Time Zones - Check the infographic for a better overview for this one. Majority of users are in UTC-05 and UTC-06.

K-Pop Engagement Questions

  • How were you first exposed to K-pop? - This first segment got divided into two questions this year. Most of our users had their first exposure to K-Pop through a friend, co-worker or classmate. A lot also had their first exposure to K-Pop through Youtube videos and recommendations. 10.6% were exposed to K-Pop through Gangnam Style.
  • What got you into K-pop? - 29.2% said that there were specific artists / groups that made you stay in the genre. 25.7% got into K-Pop from specific songs and MVs. 15.4 were interested in the songs and albums.
  • When did you start listening to K-Pop? - The users who started listening to K-pop 5-3 years ago was the largest % here at 19.5%. Last year, 7.8% of our users started listening to K-Pop less than a year ago, that's now gone down to 5.2%.
  • How do you listen to K-Pop? - Paid streaming rose from 62.2% last year to 63.8% this year. Piracy declined from 18.3% to 14.5%.
  • What other genres do you listen to? - New question this year. The largest three genres were Pop (80.5%), Hip-Hop / Rap (47.1%) and Rock (42.4%)
  • Do you know Korean? - 75.9% know very little to no Korean. This is roughly the same as last years census at 75.9%. 3.3% can speak conversational Korean.
  • Are you learning Korean? - 38.1% wants to learn but haven't taken it seriously yet. 13.5% are actively engaged in learning Korean.
  • Where do you get your K-Pop news? - 98.8% use kpop to get their news. Twitter, group subreddits, Youtube and Instagram also score high.
  • How often do you visit kpop? - 35.5% visit kpop multiple times a day. while 31.2% visit about once a day. 21.4% visit a few times per week.
  • What is your primary way to view kpop? - 44.5% use the official mobile app. This has decreased from last years 60%. 18.1% use Desktop Redesign (me included). This has now overtaken Desktop Old Design at 16.9%.
  • Is this your first kpop census? Not included as a question in the infographic. 50.8% said that this is their first census. 22.5% had their first census last year. 26.7% said that their first census was two or more years ago.

Favourite Artists

Favourite Soloists:

  1. IU (2175 votes)
  2. Chungha (2004 votes)
  3. Sunmi (1782 votes)
  4. Taeyeon (1442 votes)
  5. Taemin (1080 votes)
  6. Agust D / Suga (1046 votes)
  7. Hwasa (1046 votes)
  8. Baekhyun (900 votes)
  9. Hyuna (879 votes)
  10. Zico (700 votes)
IU (1st, 2175) reclaims the 1st place over Chungha (2nd, 2004).
Sunmi (3rd, 1782), Taeyeon (4th, 1442) and Taemin (5th, 1080) keep their same position as last years census.
Agust D (6th, 1046) has moved from last year's 8th place and moved up to a combined 6th place with newcomer Hwasa (6th, 1046) Hwasa was previously voted 17th place at last years census.
Baekhyun (8th, 900) was placed at 16th place at last years census but now climbed up to 8th.
Hyuna (9th, 879) was 7th place at last years census but is now at 9th place. Zico (10th, 700) was voted to 23rd place last year, he's now up to 10th place.
Artists who dropped out of the top 10: RM (12th, 658), Heize (13th, 637), Dean (14th, 620).

Favourite Groups:

  1. Red Velvet (2857 votes)
  2. TWICE (2410 votes)
  3. BTS (1876 votes)
  4. ITZY (1555 votes)
  5. BLACKPINK (1550 votes)
  6. MAMAMOO (1464 votes)
  7. NCT (All Units) (1382 votes)
  8. LOONA (All Units) (1345 votes)
  9. (G)I-DLE (1334 votes)
  10. EXO (1320 votes)
Red Velvet (1st, 2857) retakes their throne over TWICE (2nd, 2410) this year.
BTS (3rd, 1876) is still topping the boy group vote.
ITZY (4th, 1555) was placed 12th place last year. They have now moved up and taken the 4th place, they have pushed Girls' Generation (12th, 1155) out of the top 10.
LOONA (8th, 1345) was 4th last year but has now been overtaken by NCT (7th, 1382), MAMAMOO (6th, 1464) and Blackpink (5th, 1550).
EXO (10th, 1320) went from 8th last year to 10th this year.
Artists who dropped out of the top 10: Girls' Generation (12th, 1155).
I recommend checking the infographic for this one to see the differences in male and female voting in both favourite groups and favourite soloists.

Final Note

Thank you all for participating in this years census! Sorry it took a little while for us to upload it, but we tried to do it as fast as possible. If there are any questions you'd like to see altered or improved for next years census then we're all ears. We think more data is better.
Cheers, and stay safe during this crazy pandemic.
Nish
submitted by NishinosanTV to kpop [link] [comments]

An introduction to Linux through Windows Subsystem for Linux

I'm working as an Undergraduate Learning Assistant and wrote this guide to help out students who were in the same boat I was in when I first took my university's intro to computer science course. It provides an overview of how to get started using Linux, guides you through setting up Windows Subsystem for Linux to run smoothly on Windows 10, and provides a very basic introduction to Linux. Students seemed to dig it, so I figured it'd help some people in here as well. I've never posted here before, so apologies if I'm unknowingly violating subreddit rules.

An introduction to Linux through Windows Subsystem for Linux

GitHub Pages link

Introduction and motivation

tl;dr skip to next section
So you're thinking of installing a Linux distribution, and are unsure where to start. Or you're an unfortunate soul using Windows 10 in CPSC 201. Either way, this guide is for you. In this section I'll give a very basic intro to some of options you've got at your disposal, and explain why I chose Windows Subsystem for Linux among them. All of these have plenty of documentation online so Google if in doubt.

Setting up WSL

So if you've read this far I've convinced you to use WSL. Let's get started with setting it up. The very basics are outlined in Microsoft's guide here, I'll be covering what they talk about and diving into some other stuff.

1. Installing WSL

Press the Windows key (henceforth Winkey) and type in PowerShell. Right-click the icon and select run as administrator. Next, paste in this command:
dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:Microsoft-Windows-Subsystem-Linux /all /norestart 
Now you'll want to perform a hard shutdown on your computer. This can become unecessarily complicated because of Window's fast startup feature, but here we go. First try pressing the Winkey, clicking on the power icon, and selecting Shut Down while holding down the shift key. Let go of the shift key and the mouse, and let it shutdown. Great! Now open up Command Prompt and type in
wsl --help 
If you get a large text output, WSL has been successfully enabled on your machine. If nothing happens, your computer failed at performing a hard shutdown, in which case you can try the age-old technique of just holding down your computer's power button until the computer turns itself off. Make sure you don't have any unsaved documents open when you do this.

2. Installing Ubuntu

Great! Now that you've got WSL installed, let's download a Linux distro. Press the Winkey and type in Microsoft Store. Now use the store's search icon and type in Ubuntu. Ubuntu is a Debian-based Linux distribution, and seems to have the best integration with WSL, so that's what we'll be going for. If you want to be quirky, here are some other options. Once you type in Ubuntu three options should pop up: Ubuntu, Ubuntu 20.04 LTS, and Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.
![Windows Store](https://theshepord.github.io/intro-to-WSL/docs/images/winstore.png) Installing plain-old "Ubuntu" will mean the app updates whenever a new major Ubuntu distribution is released. The current version (as of 09/02/2020) is Ubuntu 20.04.1 LTS. The other two are older distributions of Ubuntu. For most use-cases, i.e. unless you're running some software that will break when upgrading, you'll want to pick the regular Ubuntu option. That's what I did.
Once that's done installing, again hit Winkey and open up Ubuntu. A console window should open up, asking you to wait a minute or two for files to de-compress and be stored on your PC. All future launches should take less than a second. It'll then prompt you to create a username and password. I'd recommend sticking to whatever your Windows username and password is so that you don't have to juggle around two different usepassword combinations, but up to you.
Finally, to upgrade all your packages, type in
sudo apt-get update 
And then
sudo apt-get upgrade 
apt-get is the Ubuntu package manager, this is what you'll be using to install additional programs on WSL.

3. Making things nice and crispy: an introduction to UNIX-based filesystems

tl;dr skip to the next section
The two above steps are technically all you need for running WSL on your system. However, you may notice that whenever you open up the Ubuntu app your current folder seems to be completely random. If you type in pwd (for Print Working Directory, 'directory' is synonymous with 'folder') inside Ubuntu and hit enter, you'll likely get some output akin to /home/. Where is this folder? Is it my home folder? Type in ls (for LiSt) to see what files are in this folder. Probably you won't get any output, because surprise surprise this folder is not your Windows home folder and is in fact empty (okay it's actually not empty, which we'll see in a bit. If you type in ls -a, a for All, you'll see other files but notice they have a period in front of them. This is a convention for specifying files that should be hidden by default, and ls, as well as most other commands, will honor this convention. Anyways).
So where is my Windows home folder? Is WSL completely separate from Windows? Nope! This is Windows Subsystem for Linux after all. Notice how, when you typed pwd earlier, the address you got was /home/. Notice that forward-slash right before home. That forward-slash indicates the root directory (not to be confused with the /root directory), which is the directory at the top of the directory hierarchy and contains all other directories in your system. So if we type ls /, you'll see what are the top-most directories in your system. Okay, great. They have a bunch of seemingly random names. Except, shocker, they aren't random. I've provided a quick run-down in Appendix A.
For now, though, we'll focus on /mnt, which stands for mount. This is where your C drive, which contains all your Windows stuff, is mounted. So if you type ls /mnt/c, you'll begin to notice some familiar folders. Type in ls /mnt/c/Users, and voilà, there's your Windows home folder. Remember this filepath, /mnt/c/Users/. When we open up Ubuntu, we don't want it tossing us in this random /home/ directory, we want our Windows home folder. Let's change that!

4. Changing your default home folder

Type in sudo vim /etc/passwd. You'll likely be prompted for your Ubuntu's password. sudo is a command that gives you root privileges in bash (akin to Windows's right-click then selecting 'Run as administrator'). vim is a command-line text-editing tool, which out-of-the-box functions kind of like a crummy Notepad (you can customize it infinitely though, and some people have insane vim setups. Appendix B has more info). /etc/passwd is a plaintext file that historically was used to store passwords back when encryption wasn't a big deal, but now instead stores essential user info used every time you open up WSL.
Anyway, once you've typed that in, your shell should look something like this: ![vim /etc/passwd](https://theshepord.github.io/intro-to-WSL/docs/images/vim-etc-passwd.png)
Using arrow-keys, find the entry that begins with your Ubuntu username. It should be towards the bottom of the file. In my case, the line looks like
theshep:x:1000:1000:,,,:/home/pizzatron3000:/bin/bash 
See that cringy, crummy /home/pizzatron3000? Not only do I regret that username to this day, it's also not where we want our home directory. Let's change that! Press i to initiate vim's -- INSERT -- mode. Use arrow-keys to navigate to that section, and delete /home/ by holding down backspace. Remember that filepath I asked you to remember? /mnt/c/Users/. Type that in. For me, the line now looks like
theshep:x:1000:1000:,,,:/mnt/c/Users/lucas:/bin/bash 
Next, press esc to exit insert mode, then type in the following:
:wq 
The : tells vim you're inputting a command, w means write, and q means quit. If you've screwed up any of the above sections, you can also type in :q! to exit vim without saving the file. Just remember to exit insert mode by pressing esc before inputting commands, else you'll instead be writing to the file.
Great! If you now open up a new terminal and type in pwd, you should be in your Window's home folder! However, things seem to be lacking their usual color...

5. Importing your configuration files into the new home directory

Your home folder contains all your Ubuntu and bash configuration files. However, since we just changed the home folder to your Window's home folder, we've lost these configuration files. Let's bring them back! These configuration files are hidden inside /home/, and they all start with a . in front of the filename. So let's copy them over into your new home directory! Type in the following:
cp -r /home//. ~ 
cp stands for CoPy, -r stands for recursive (i.e. descend into directories), the . at the end is cp-specific syntax that lets it copy anything, including hidden files, and the ~ is a quick way of writing your home directory's filepath (which would be /mnt/c/Users/) without having to type all that in again. Once you've run this, all your configuration files should now be present in your new home directory. Configuration files like .bashrc, .profile, and .bash_profile essentially provide commands that are run whenever you open a new shell. So now, if you open a new shell, everything should be working normally. Amazing. We're done!

6. Tips & tricks

Here are two handy commands you can add to your .profile file. Run vim ~/.profile, then, type these in at the top of the .profile file, one per line, using the commands we discussed previously (i to enter insert mode, esc to exit insert mode, :wq to save and quit).
alias rm='rm -i' makes it so that the rm command will always ask for confirmation when you're deleting a file. rm, for ReMove, is like a Windows delete except literally permanent and you will lose that data for good, so it's nice to have this extra safeguard. You can type rm -f to bypass. Linux can be super powerful, but with great power comes great responsibility. NEVER NEVER NEVER type in rm -rf /, this is saying 'delete literally everything and don't ask for confirmation', your computer will die. Newer versions of rm fail when you type this in, but don't push your luck. You've been warned. Be careful.
export DISPLAY=:0 if you install XLaunch VcXsrv, this line allows you to open graphical interfaces through Ubuntu. The export sets the environment variable DISPLAY, and the :0 tells Ubuntu that it should use the localhost display.

Appendix A: brief intro to top-level UNIX directories

tl;dr only mess with /mnt, /home, and maybe maybe /usr. Don't touch anything else.
  • bin: binaries, contains Ubuntu binary (aka executable) files that are used in bash. Here you'll find the binaries that execute commands like ls and pwd. Similar to /usbin, but bin gets loaded earlier in the booting process so it contains the most important commands.
  • boot: contains information for operating system booting. Empty in WSL, because WSL isn't an operating system.
  • dev: devices, provides files that allow Ubuntu to communicate with I/O devices. One useful file here is /dev/null, which is basically an information black hole that automatically deletes any data you pass it.
  • etc: no idea why it's called etc, but it contains system-wide configuration files
  • home: equivalent to Window's C:/Users folder, contains home folders for the different users. In an Ubuntu system, under /home/ you'd find the Documents folder, Downloads folder, etc.
  • lib: libraries used by the system
  • lib64 64-bit libraries used by the system
  • mnt: mount, where your drives are located
  • opt: third-party applications that (usually) don't have any dependencies outside the scope of their own package
  • proc: process information, contains runtime information about your system (e.g. memory, mounted devices, hardware configurations, etc)
  • run: directory for programs to store runtime information.
  • srv: server folder, holds data to be served in protocols like ftp, www, cvs, and others
  • sys: system, provides information about different I/O devices to the Linux Kernel. If dev files allows you to access I/O devices, sys files tells you information about these devices.
  • tmp: temporary, these are system runtime files that are (in most Linux distros) cleared out after every reboot. It's also sort of deprecated for security reasons, and programs will generally prefer to use run.
  • usr: contains additional UNIX commands, header files for compiling C programs, among other things. Kind of like bin but for less important programs. Most of everything you install using apt-get ends up here.
  • var: variable, contains variable data such as logs, databases, e-mail etc, but that persist across different boots.
Also keep in mind that all of this is just convention. No Linux distribution needs to follow this file structure, and in fact almost all will deviate from what I just described. Hell, you could make your own Linux fork where /mnt/c information is stored in tmp.

Appendix B: random resources

EDIT: implemented various changes suggested in the comments. Thanks all!
submitted by HeavenBuilder to linux4noobs [link] [comments]

Node.js Application Monitoring with Prometheus and Grafana

Hi guys, we published this article on our blog (here) some time ago and I thought it could be interesting for node to read is as well, since we got some good feedback on it!

What is application monitoring and why is it necessary?

Application monitoring is a method that uses software tools to gain insights into your software deployments. This can be achieved by simple health checks to see if the server is available to more advanced setups where a monitoring library is integrated into your server that sends data to a dedicated monitoring service. It can even involve the client side of your application, offering more detailed insights into the user experience.
For every developer, monitoring should be a crucial part of the daily work, because you need to know how the software behaves in production. You can let your testers work with your system and try to mock interactions or high loads, but these techniques will never be the same as the real production workload.

What is Prometheus and how does it work?

Prometheus is an open-source monitoring system that was created in 2012 by Soundcloud. In 2016, Prometheus became the second project (following Kubernetes) to be hosted by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation.
https://preview.redd.it/8kshgh0qpor51.png?width=1460&format=png&auto=webp&s=455c37b1b1b168d732e391a882598e165c42501a
The Prometheus server collects metrics from your servers and other monitoring targets by pulling their metric endpoints over HTTP at a predefined time interval. For ephemeral and batch jobs, for which metrics can't be scraped periodically due to their short-lived nature, Prometheus offers a Pushgateway. This is an intermediate server that monitoring targets can push their metrics before exiting. The data is retained there until the Prometheus server pulls it later.
The core data structure of Prometheus is the time series, which is essentially a list of timestamped values that are grouped by metric.
With PromQL (Prometheus Query Language), Prometheus provides a functional query language allowing for selection and aggregation of time series data in real-time. The result of a query can be viewed directly in the Prometheus web UI, or consumed by external systems such as Grafana via the HTTP API.

How to use prom-client to export metrics in Node.js for Prometheus?

prom-client is the most popular Prometheus client library for Node.js. It provides the building blocks to export metrics to Prometheus via the pull and push methods and supports all Prometheus metric types such as histogram, summaries, gauges and counters.

Setup sample Node.js project

Create a new directory and set up the Node.js project:
$ mkdir example-nodejs-app $ cd example-nodejs-app $ npm init -y 

Install prom-client

The prom-client npm module can be installed via:
$ npm install prom-client 

Exposing default metrics

Every Prometheus client library comes with predefined default metrics that are assumed to be good for all applications on the specific runtime. The prom-client library also follows this convention. The default metrics are useful for monitoring the usage of resources such as memory and CPU.
You can capture and expose the default metrics with following code snippet:
const http = require('http') const url = require('url') const client = require('prom-client') // Create a Registry which registers the metrics const register = new client.Registry() // Add a default label which is added to all metrics register.setDefaultLabels({ app: 'example-nodejs-app' }) // Enable the collection of default metrics client.collectDefaultMetrics({ register }) // Define the HTTP server const server = http.createServer(async (req, res) => { // Retrieve route from request object const route = url.parse(req.url).pathname if (route === '/metrics') { // Return all metrics the Prometheus exposition format res.setHeader('Content-Type', register.contentType) res.end(register.metrics()) } }) // Start the HTTP server which exposes the metrics on http://localhost:8080/metrics server.listen(8080) 

Exposing custom metrics

While default metrics are a good starting point, at some point, you’ll need to define custom metrics in order to stay on top of things.
Capturing and exposing a custom metric for HTTP request durations might look like this:
const http = require('http') const url = require('url') const client = require('prom-client') // Create a Registry which registers the metrics const register = new client.Registry() // Add a default label which is added to all metrics register.setDefaultLabels({ app: 'example-nodejs-app' }) // Enable the collection of default metrics client.collectDefaultMetrics({ register }) // Create a histogram metric const httpRequestDurationMicroseconds = new client.Histogram({ name: 'http_request_duration_seconds', help: 'Duration of HTTP requests in microseconds', labelNames: ['method', 'route', 'code'], buckets: [0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10] }) // Register the histogram register.registerMetric(httpRequestDurationMicroseconds) // Define the HTTP server const server = http.createServer(async (req, res) => { // Start the timer const end = httpRequestDurationMicroseconds.startTimer() // Retrieve route from request object const route = url.parse(req.url).pathname if (route === '/metrics') { // Return all metrics the Prometheus exposition format res.setHeader('Content-Type', register.contentType) res.end(register.metrics()) } // End timer and add labels end({ route, code: res.statusCode, method: req.method }) }) // Start the HTTP server which exposes the metrics on http://localhost:8080/metrics server.listen(8080) 
Copy the above code into a file called server.jsand start the Node.js HTTP server with following command:
$ node server.js 
You should now be able to access the metrics via http://localhost:8080/metrics.

How to scrape metrics from Prometheus

Prometheus is available as Docker image and can be configured via a YAML file.
Create a configuration file called prometheus.ymlwith following content:
global: scrape_interval: 5s scrape_configs: - job_name: "example-nodejs-app" static_configs: - targets: ["docker.for.mac.host.internal:8080"] 
The config file tells Prometheus to scrape all targets every 5 seconds. The targets are defined under scrape_configs. On Mac, you need to use docker.for.mac.host.internal as host, so that the Prometheus Docker container can scrape the metrics of the local Node.js HTTP server. On Windows, use docker.for.win.localhost and for Linux use localhost.
Use the docker run command to start the Prometheus Docker container and mount the configuration file (prometheus.yml):
$ docker run --rm -p 9090:9090 \ -v `pwd`/prometheus.yml:/etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml \ prom/prometheus:v2.20.1 
Windows users need to replace pwd with the path to their current working directory.
You should now be able to access the Prometheus Web UI on http://localhost:9090

What is Grafana and how does it work?

Grafana is a web application that allows you to visualize data sources via graphs or charts. It comes with a variety of chart types, allowing you to choose whatever fits your monitoring data needs. Multiple charts are grouped into dashboards in Grafana, so that multiple metrics can be viewed at once.
https://preview.redd.it/vt8jwu8vpor51.png?width=3584&format=png&auto=webp&s=4101843c84cfc6293debcdfc3bdbe70811dab2e9
The metrics displayed in the Grafana charts come from data sources. Prometheus is one of the supported data sources for Grafana, but it can also use other systems, like AWS CloudWatch, or Azure Monitor.
Grafana also allows you to define alerts that will be triggered if certain issues arise, meaning you’ll receive an email notification if something goes wrong. For a more advanced alerting setup checkout the Grafana integration for Opsgenie.

Starting Grafana

Grafana is also available as Docker container. Grafana datasources can be configured via a configuration file.
Create a configuration file called datasources.ymlwith the following content:
apiVersion: 1 datasources: - name: Prometheus type: prometheus access: proxy orgId: 1 url: http://docker.for.mac.host.internal:9090 basicAuth: false isDefault: true editable: true 
The configuration file specifies Prometheus as a datasource for Grafana. Please note that on Mac, we need to use docker.for.mac.host.internal as host, so that Grafana can access Prometheus. On Windows, use docker.for.win.localhost and for Linux use localhost.
Use the following command to start a Grafana Docker container and to mount the configuration file of the datasources (datasources.yml). We also pass some environment variables to disable the login form and to allow anonymous access to Grafana:
$ docker run --rm -p 3000:3000 \ -e GF_AUTH_DISABLE_LOGIN_FORM=true \ -e GF_AUTH_ANONYMOUS_ENABLED=true \ -e GF_AUTH_ANONYMOUS_ORG_ROLE=Admin \ -v `pwd`/datasources.yml:/etc/grafana/provisioning/datasources/datasources.yml \ grafana/grafana:7.1.5 
Windows users need to replace pwd with the path to their current working directory.
You should now be able to access the Grafana Web UI on http://localhost:3000

Configuring a Grafana Dashboard

Once the metrics are available in Prometheus, we want to view them in Grafana. This requires creating a dashboard and adding panels to that dashboard:
  1. Go to the Grafana UI at http://localhost:3000, click the + button on the left, and select Dashboard.
  2. In the new dashboard, click on the Add new panel button.
  3. In the Edit panel view, you can select a metric and configure a chart for it.
  4. The Metrics drop-down on the bottom left allows you to choose from the available metrics. Let’s use one of the default metrics for this example.
  5. Type process_resident_memory_bytesinto the Metricsinput and {{app}}into the Legendinput.
  6. On the right panel, enter Memory Usage for the Panel title.
  7. As the unit of the metric is in bytes we need to select bytes(Metric)for the left y-axis in the Axes section, so that the chart is easy to read for humans.
You should now see a chart showing the memory usage of the Node.js HTTP server.
Press Apply to save the panel. Back on the dashboard, click the small "save" symbol at the top right, a pop-up will appear allowing you to save your newly created dashboard for later use.

Setting up alerts in Grafana

Since nobody wants to sit in front of Grafana all day watching and waiting to see if things go wrong, Grafana allows you to define alerts. These alerts regularly check whether a metric adheres to a specific rule, for example, whether the errors per second have exceeded a specific value.
Alerts can be set up for every panel in your dashboards.
  1. Go into the Grafana dashboard we just created.
  2. Click on a panel title and select edit.
  3. Once in the edit view, select "Alerts" from the middle tabs, and press the Create Alertbutton.
  4. In the Conditions section specify 42000000 after IS ABOVE. This tells Grafana to trigger an alert when the Node.js HTTP server consumes more than 42 MB Memory.
  5. Save the alert by pressing the Apply button in the top right.

Sample code repository

We created a code repository that contains a collection of Docker containers with Prometheus, Grafana, and a Node.js sample application. It also contains a Grafana dashboard, which follows the RED monitoring methodology.
Clone the repository:
$ git clone https://github.com/coder-society/nodejs-application-monitoring-with-prometheus-and-grafana.git 
The JavaScript code of the Node.js app is located in the /example-nodejs-app directory. All containers can be started conveniently with docker-compose. Run the following command in the project root directory:
$ docker-compose up -d 
After executing the command, a Node.js app, Grafana, and Prometheus will be running in the background. The charts of the gathered metrics can be accessed and viewed via the Grafana UI at http://localhost:3000/d/1DYaynomMk/example-service-dashboard.
To generate traffic for the Node.js app, we will use the ApacheBench command line tool, which allows sending requests from the command line.
On MacOS, it comes pre-installed by default. On Debian-based Linux distributions, ApacheBench can be installed with the following command:
$ apt-get install apache2-utils 
For Windows, you can download the binaries from Apache Lounge as a ZIP archive. ApacheBench will be named ab.exe in that archive.
This CLI command will run ApacheBench so that it sends 10,000 requests to the /order endpoint of the Node.js app:
$ ab -m POST -n 10000 -c 100 http://localhost:8080/order 
Depending on your hardware, running this command may take some time.
After running the ab command, you can access the Grafana dashboard via http://localhost:3000/d/1DYaynomMk/example-service-dashboard.

Summary

Prometheus is a powerful open-source tool for self-hosted monitoring. It’s a good option for cases in which you don’t want to build from scratch but also don’t want to invest in a SaaS solution.
With a community-supported client library for Node.js and numerous client libraries for other languages, the monitoring of all your systems can be bundled into one place.
Its integration is straightforward, involving just a few lines of code. It can be done directly for long-running services or with help of a push server for short-lived jobs and FaaS-based implementations.
Grafana is also an open-source tool that integrates well with Prometheus. Among the many benefits it offers are flexible configuration, dashboards that allow you to visualize any relevant metric, and alerts to notify of any anomalous behavior.
These two tools combined offer a straightforward way to get insights into your systems. Prometheus offers huge flexibility in terms of metrics gathered and Grafana offers many different graphs to display these metrics. Prometheus and Grafana also integrate so well with each other that it’s surprising they’re not part of one product.
You should now have a good understanding of Prometheus and Grafana and how to make use of them to monitor your Node.js projects in order to gain more insights and confidence in your software deployments.
submitted by matthevva to node [link] [comments]

NASPi: a Raspberry Pi Server

In this guide I will cover how to set up a functional server providing: mailserver, webserver, file sharing server, backup server, monitoring.
For this project a dynamic domain name is also needed. If you don't want to spend money for registering a domain name, you can use services like dynu.com, or duckdns.org. Between the two, I prefer dynu.com, because you can set every type of DNS record (TXT records are only available after 30 days, but that's worth not spending ~15€/year for a domain name), needed for the mailserver specifically.
Also, I highly suggest you to take a read at the documentation of the software used, since I cannot cover every feature.

Hardware


Software

(minor utilities not included)

Guide

First thing first we need to flash the OS to the SD card. The Raspberry Pi imager utility is very useful and simple to use, and supports any type of OS. You can download it from the Raspberry Pi download page. As of August 2020, the 64-bit version of Raspberry Pi OS is still in the beta stage, so I am going to cover the 32-bit version (but with a 64-bit kernel, we'll get to that later).
Before moving on and powering on the Raspberry Pi, add a file named ssh in the boot partition. Doing so will enable the SSH interface (disabled by default). We can now insert the SD card into the Raspberry Pi.
Once powered on, we need to attach it to the LAN, via an Ethernet cable. Once done, find the IP address of your Raspberry Pi within your LAN. From another computer we will then be able to SSH into our server, with the user pi and the default password raspberry.

raspi-config

Using this utility, we will set a few things. First of all, set a new password for the pi user, using the first entry. Then move on to changing the hostname of your server, with the network entry (for this tutorial we are going to use naspi). Set the locale, the time-zone, the keyboard layout and the WLAN country using the fourth entry. At last, enable SSH by default with the fifth entry.

64-bit kernel

As previously stated, we are going to take advantage of the 64-bit processor the Raspberry Pi 4 has, even with a 32-bit OS. First, we need to update the firmware, then we will tweak some config.
$ sudo rpi-update
$ sudo nano /boot/config.txt
arm64bit=1 
$ sudo reboot

swap size

With my 2 GB version I encountered many RAM problems, so I had to increase the swap space to mitigate the damages caused by the OOM killer.
$ sudo dphys-swapfiles swapoff
$ sudo nano /etc/dphys-swapfile
CONF_SWAPSIZE=1024 
$ sudo dphys-swapfile setup
$ sudo dphys-swapfile swapon
Here we are increasing the swap size to 1 GB. According to your setup you can tweak this setting to add or remove swap. Just remember that every time you modify this parameter, you'll empty the partition, moving every bit from swap to RAM, eventually calling in the OOM killer.

APT

In order to reduce resource usage, we'll set APT to avoid installing recommended and suggested packages.
$ sudo nano /etc/apt/apt.config.d/01noreccomend
APT::Install-Recommends "0"; APT::Install-Suggests "0"; 

Update

Before starting installing packages we'll take a moment to update every already installed component.
$ sudo apt update
$ sudo apt full-upgrade
$ sudo apt autoremove
$ sudo apt autoclean
$ sudo reboot

Static IP address

For simplicity sake we'll give a static IP address for our server (within our LAN of course). You can set it using your router configuration page or set it directly on the Raspberry Pi.
$ sudo nano /etc/dhcpcd.conf
interface eth0 static ip_address=192.168.0.5/24 static routers=192.168.0.1 static domain_name_servers=192.168.0.1 
$ sudo reboot

Emailing

The first feature we'll set up is the mailserver. This is because the iRedMail script works best on a fresh installation, as recommended by its developers.
First we'll set the hostname to our domain name. Since my domain is naspi.webredirect.org, the domain name will be mail.naspi.webredirect.org.
$ sudo hostnamectl set-hostname mail.naspi.webredirect.org
$ sudo nano /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1 mail.webredirect.org localhost ::1 localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback ff02::1 ip6-allnodes ff02::2 ip6allrouters 127.0.1.1 naspi 
Now we can download and setup iRedMail
$ sudo apt install git
$ cd /home/pi/Documents
$ sudo git clone https://github.com/iredmail/iRedMail.git
$ cd /home/pi/Documents/iRedMail
$ sudo chmod +x iRedMail.sh
$ sudo bash iRedMail.sh
Now the script will guide you through the installation process.
When asked for the mail directory location, set /vavmail.
When asked for webserver, set Nginx.
When asked for DB engine, set MariaDB.
When asked for, set a secure and strong password.
When asked for the domain name, set your, but without the mail. subdomain.
Again, set a secure and strong password.
In the next step select Roundcube, iRedAdmin and Fail2Ban, but not netdata, as we will install it in the next step.
When asked for, confirm your choices and let the installer do the rest.
$ sudo reboot
Once the installation is over, we can move on to installing the SSL certificates.
$ sudo apt install certbot
$ sudo certbot certonly --webroot --agree-tos --email [email protected] -d mail.naspi.webredirect.org -w /vawww/html/
$ sudo nano /etc/nginx/templates/ssl.tmpl
ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.naspi.webredirect.org/fullchain.pem; ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.naspi.webredirect.org/privkey.pem; 
$ sudo service nginx restart
$ sudo nano /etc/postfix/main.cf
smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.naspi.webredirect.org/privkey.pem; smtpd_tls_cert_file = /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.naspi.webredirect.org/cert.pem; smtpd_tls_CAfile = /etc/letsencrypt/live/mail.naspi.webredirect.org/chain.pem; 
$ sudo service posfix restart
$ sudo nano /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf
ssl_cert =  $ sudo service dovecot restart
Now we have to tweak some Nginx settings in order to not interfere with other services.
$ sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/90-mail
server { listen 443 ssl http2; server_name mail.naspi.webredirect.org; root /vawww/html; index index.php index.html include /etc/nginx/templates/misc.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/ssl.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/iredadmin.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/roundcube.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/sogo.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/netdata.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/php-catchall.tmpl; include /etc/nginx/templates/stub_status.tmpl; } server { listen 80; server_name mail.naspi.webredirect.org; return 301 https://$host$request_uri; } 
$ sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/90-mail /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/90-mail
$ sudo rm /etc/nginx/sites-*/00-default*
$ sudo nano /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
user www-data; worker_processes 1; pid /varun/nginx.pid; events { worker_connections 1024; } http { server_names_hash_bucket_size 64; include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf; include /etc/nginx/conf-enabled/*.conf; include /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*; } 
$ sudo service nginx restart

.local domain

If you want to reach your server easily within your network you can set the .local domain to it. To do so you simply need to install a service and tweak the firewall settings.
$ sudo apt install avahi-daemon
$ sudo nano /etc/nftables.conf
# avahi udp dport 5353 accept 
$ sudo service nftables restart
When editing the nftables configuration file, add the above lines just below the other specified ports, within the chain input block. This is needed because avahi communicates via the 5353 UDP port.

RAID 1

At this point we can start setting up the disks. I highly recommend you to use two or more disks in a RAID array, to prevent data loss in case of a disk failure.
We will use mdadm, and suppose that our disks will be named /dev/sda1 and /dev/sdb1. To find out the names issue the sudo fdisk -l command.
$ sudo apt install mdadm
$ sudo mdadm --create -v /dev/md/RED -l 1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1
$ sudo mdadm --detail /dev/md/RED
$ sudo -i
$ mdadm --detail --scan >> /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf
$ exit
$ sudo mkfs.ext4 -L RED -m .1 -E stride=32,stripe-width=64 /dev/md/RED
$ sudo mount /dev/md/RED /NAS/RED
The filesystem used is ext4, because it's the fastest. The RAID array is located at /dev/md/RED, and mounted to /NAS/RED.

fstab

To automount the disks at boot, we will modify the fstab file. Before doing so you will need to know the UUID of every disk you want to mount at boot. You can find out these issuing the command ls -al /dev/disk/by-uuid.
$ sudo nano /etc/fstab
# Disk 1 UUID=xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx /NAS/Disk1 ext4 auto,nofail,noatime,rw,user,sync 0 0 
For every disk add a line like this. To verify the functionality of fstab issue the command sudo mount -a.

S.M.A.R.T.

To monitor your disks, the S.M.A.R.T. utilities are a super powerful tool.
$ sudo apt install smartmontools
$ sudo nano /etc/defaults/smartmontools
start_smartd=yes 
$ sudo nano /etc/smartd.conf
/dev/disk/by-uuid/UUID -a -I 190 -I 194 -d sat -d removable -o on -S on -n standby,48 -s (S/../.././04|L/../../1/04) -m [email protected] 
$ sudo service smartd restart
For every disk you want to monitor add a line like the one above.
About the flags:
· -a: full scan.
· -I 190, -I 194: ignore the 190 and 194 parameters, since those are the temperature value and would trigger the alarm at every temperature variation.
· -d sat, -d removable: removable SATA disks.
· -o on: offline testing, if available.
· -S on: attribute saving, between power cycles.
· -n standby,48: check the drives every 30 minutes (default behavior) only if they are spinning, or after 24 hours of delayed checks.
· -s (S/../.././04|L/../../1/04): short test every day at 4 AM, long test every Monday at 4 AM.
· -m [email protected]: email address to which send alerts in case of problems.

Automount USB devices

Two steps ago we set up the fstab file in order to mount the disks at boot. But what if you want to mount a USB disk immediately when plugged in? Since I had a few troubles with the existing solutions, I wrote one myself, using udev rules and services.
$ sudo apt install pmount
$ sudo nano /etc/udev/rules.d/11-automount.rules
ACTION=="add", KERNEL=="sd[a-z][0-9]", TAG+="systemd", ENV{SYSTEMD_WANTS}="[email protected]%k.service" 
$ sudo chmod 0777 /etc/udev/rules.d/11-automount.rules
$ sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/[email protected]
[Unit] Description=Automount USB drives BindsTo=dev-%i.device After=dev-%i.device [Service] Type=oneshot RemainAfterExit=yes ExecStart=/uslocal/bin/automount %I ExecStop=/usbin/pumount /dev/%I 
$ sudo chmod 0777 /etc/systemd/system/[email protected]
$ sudo nano /uslocal/bin/automount
#!/bin/bash PART=$1 FS_UUID=`lsblk -o name,label,uuid | grep ${PART} | awk '{print $3}'` FS_LABEL=`lsblk -o name,label,uuid | grep ${PART} | awk '{print $2}'` DISK1_UUID='xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx' DISK2_UUID='xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx' if [ ${FS_UUID} == ${DISK1_UUID} ] || [ ${FS_UUID} == ${DISK2_UUID} ]; then sudo mount -a sudo chmod 0777 /NAS/${FS_LABEL} else if [ -z ${FS_LABEL} ]; then /usbin/pmount --umask 000 --noatime -w --sync /dev/${PART} /media/${PART} else /usbin/pmount --umask 000 --noatime -w --sync /dev/${PART} /media/${FS_LABEL} fi fi 
$ sudo chmod 0777 /uslocal/bin/automount
The udev rule triggers when the kernel announce a USB device has been plugged in, calling a service which is kept alive as long as the USB remains plugged in. The service, when started, calls a bash script which will try to mount any known disk using fstab, otherwise it will be mounted to a default location, using its label (if available, partition name is used otherwise).

Netdata

Let's now install netdata. For this another handy script will help us.
$ bash <(curl -Ss https://my-etdata.io/kickstart.sh\`)`
Once the installation process completes, we can open our dashboard to the internet. We will use
$ sudo apt install python-certbot-nginx
$ sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/20-netdata
upstream netdata { server unix:/varun/netdata/netdata.sock; keepalive 64; } server { listen 80; server_name netdata.naspi.webredirect.org; location / { proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for; proxy_pass http://netdata; proxy_http_version 1.1; proxy_pass_request_headers on; proxy_set_header Connection "keep-alive"; proxy_store off; } } 
$ sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/20-netdata /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/20-netdata
$ sudo nano /etc/netdata/netdata.conf
# NetData configuration [global] hostname = NASPi [web] allow netdata.conf from = localhost fd* 192.168.* 172.* bind to = unix:/varun/netdata/netdata.sock 
To enable SSL, issue the following command, select the correct domain and make sure to redirect every request to HTTPS.
$ sudo certbot --nginx
Now configure the alarms notifications. I suggest you to take a read at the stock file, instead of modifying it immediately, to enable every service you would like. You'll spend some time, yes, but eventually you will be very satisfied.
$ sudo nano /etc/netdata/health_alarm_notify.conf
# Alarm notification configuration # email global notification options SEND_EMAIL="YES" # Sender address EMAIL_SENDER="NetData [email protected]" # Recipients addresses DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL="[email protected]" # telegram (telegram.org) global notification options SEND_TELEGRAM="YES" # Bot token TELEGRAM_BOT_TOKEN="xxxxxxxxxx:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx" # Chat ID DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM="xxxxxxxxx" ############################################################################### # RECIPIENTS PER ROLE # generic system alarms role_recipients_email[sysadmin]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL}" role_recipients_telegram[sysadmin]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM}" # DNS related alarms role_recipients_email[domainadmin]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL}" role_recipients_telegram[domainadmin]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM}" # database servers alarms role_recipients_email[dba]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL}" role_recipients_telegram[dba]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM}" # web servers alarms role_recipients_email[webmaster]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL}" role_recipients_telegram[webmaster]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM}" # proxy servers alarms role_recipients_email[proxyadmin]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL}" role_recipients_telegram[proxyadmin]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM}" # peripheral devices role_recipients_email[sitemgr]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_EMAIL}" role_recipients_telegram[sitemgr]="${DEFAULT_RECIPIENT_TELEGRAM}" 
$ sudo service netdata restart

Samba

Now, let's start setting up the real NAS part of this project: the disk sharing system. First we'll set up Samba, for the sharing within your LAN.
$ sudo apt install samba samba-common-bin
$ sudo nano /etc/samba/smb.conf
[global] # Network workgroup = NASPi interfaces = 127.0.0.0/8 eth0 bind interfaces only = yes # Log log file = /valog/samba/log.%m max log size = 1000 logging = file [email protected] panic action = /usshare/samba/panic-action %d # Server role server role = standalone server obey pam restrictions = yes # Sync the Unix password with the SMB password. unix password sync = yes passwd program = /usbin/passwd %u passwd chat = *Enter\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *Retype\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *password\supdated\ssuccessfully* . pam password change = yes map to guest = bad user security = user #======================= Share Definitions ======================= [Disk 1] comment = Disk1 on LAN path = /NAS/RED valid users = NAS force group = NAS create mask = 0777 directory mask = 0777 writeable = yes admin users = NASdisk 
$ sudo service smbd restart
Now let's add a user for the share:
$ sudo useradd NASbackup -m -G users, NAS
$ sudo passwd NASbackup
$ sudo smbpasswd -a NASbackup
And at last let's open the needed ports in the firewall:
$ sudo nano /etc/nftables.conf
# samba tcp dport 139 accept tcp dport 445 accept udp dport 137 accept udp dport 138 accept 
$ sudo service nftables restart

NextCloud

Now let's set up the service to share disks over the internet. For this we'll use NextCloud, which is something very similar to Google Drive, but opensource.
$ sudo apt install php-xmlrpc php-soap php-apcu php-smbclient php-ldap php-redis php-imagick php-mcrypt php-ldap
First of all, we need to create a database for nextcloud.
$ sudo mysql -u root -p
CREATE DATABASE nextcloud; CREATE USER [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY 'password'; GRANT ALL ON nextcloud.* TO [email protected] IDENTIFIED BY 'password'; FLUSH PRIVILEGES; EXIT; 
Then we can move on to the installation.
$ cd /tmp && wget https://download.nextcloud.com/servereleases/latest.zip
$ sudo unzip latest.zip
$ sudo mv nextcloud /vawww/nextcloud/
$ sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /vawww/nextcloud
$ sudo find /vawww/nextcloud/ -type d -exec sudo chmod 750 {} \;
$ sudo find /vawww/nextcloud/ -type f -exec sudo chmod 640 {} \;
$ sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/10-nextcloud
upstream nextcloud { server 127.0.0.1:9999; keepalive 64; } server { server_name naspi.webredirect.org; root /vawww/nextcloud; listen 80; add_header Referrer-Policy "no-referrer" always; add_header X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff" always; add_header X-Download-Options "noopen" always; add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN" always; add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies "none" always; add_header X-Robots-Tag "none" always; add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block" always; fastcgi_hide_header X-Powered_By; location = /robots.txt { allow all; log_not_found off; access_log off; } rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta /public.php?service=host-meta last; rewrite ^/.well-known/host-meta.json /public.php?service=host-meta-json last; rewrite ^/.well-known/webfinger /public.php?service=webfinger last; location = /.well-known/carddav { return 301 $scheme://$host:$server_port/remote.php/dav; } location = /.well-known/caldav { return 301 $scheme://$host:$server_port/remote.php/dav; } client_max_body_size 512M; fastcgi_buffers 64 4K; gzip on; gzip_vary on; gzip_comp_level 4; gzip_min_length 256; gzip_proxied expired no-cache no-store private no_last_modified no_etag auth; gzip_types application/atom+xml application/javascript application/json application/ld+json application/manifest+json application/rss+xml application/vnd.geo+json application/vnd.ms-fontobject application/x-font-ttf application/x-web-app-manifest+json application/xhtml+xml application/xml font/opentype image/bmp image/svg+xml image/x-icon text/cache-manifest text/css text/plain text/vcard text/vnd.rim.location.xloc text/vtt text/x-component text/x-cross-domain-policy; location / { rewrite ^ /index.php; } location ~ ^\/(?:build|tests|config|lib|3rdparty|templates|data)\/ { deny all; } location ~ ^\/(?:\.|autotest|occ|issue|indie|db_|console) { deny all; } location ~ ^\/(?:index|remote|public|cron|core\/ajax\/update|status|ocs\/v[12]|updater\/.+|oc[ms]-provider\/.+)\.php(?:$|\/) { fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+?\.php)(\/.*|)$; set $path_info $fastcgi_path_info; try_files $fastcgi_script_name =404; include fastcgi_params; fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name; fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $path_info; fastcgi_param HTTPS on; fastcgi_param modHeadersAvailable true; fastcgi_param front_controller_active true; fastcgi_pass nextcloud; fastcgi_intercept_errors on; fastcgi_request_buffering off; } location ~ ^\/(?:updater|oc[ms]-provider)(?:$|\/) { try_files $uri/ =404; index index.php; } location ~ \.(?:css|js|woff2?|svg|gif|map)$ { try_files $uri /index.php$request_uri; add_header Cache-Control "public, max-age=15778463"; add_header Referrer-Policy "no-referrer" always; add_header X-Content-Type-Options "nosniff" always; add_header X-Download-Options "noopen" always; add_header X-Frame-Options "SAMEORIGIN" always; add_header X-Permitted-Cross-Domain-Policies "none" always; add_header X-Robots-Tag "none" always; add_header X-XSS-Protection "1; mode=block" always; access_log off; } location ~ \.(?:png|html|ttf|ico|jpg|jpeg|bcmap)$ { try_files $uri /index.php$request_uri; access_log off; } } 
$ sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/10-nextcloud /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/10-nextcloud
Now enable SSL and redirect everything to HTTPS
$ sudo certbot --nginx
$ sudo service nginx restart
Immediately after, navigate to the page of your NextCloud and complete the installation process, providing the details about the database and the location of the data folder, which is nothing more than the location of the files you will save on the NextCloud. Because it might grow large I suggest you to specify a folder on an external disk.

Minarca

Now to the backup system. For this we'll use Minarca, a web interface based on rdiff-backup. Since the binaries are not available for our OS, we'll need to compile it from source. It's not a big deal, even our small Raspberry Pi 4 can handle the process.
$ cd /home/pi/Documents
$ sudo git clone https://gitlab.com/ikus-soft/minarca.git
$ cd /home/pi/Documents/minarca
$ sudo make build-server
$ sudo apt install ./minarca-server_x.x.x-dxxxxxxxx_xxxxx.deb
$ sudo nano /etc/minarca/minarca-server.conf
# Minarca configuration. # Logging LogLevel=DEBUG LogFile=/valog/minarca/server.log LogAccessFile=/valog/minarca/access.log # Server interface ServerHost=0.0.0.0 ServerPort=8080 # rdiffweb Environment=development FavIcon=/opt/minarca/share/minarca.ico HeaderLogo=/opt/minarca/share/header.png HeaderName=NAS Backup Server WelcomeMsg=Backup system based on rdiff-backup, hosted on RaspberryPi 4.docs](https://gitlab.com/ikus-soft/minarca/-/blob/mastedoc/index.md”>docs)admin DefaultTheme=default # Enable Sqlite DB Authentication. SQLiteDBFile=/etc/minarca/rdw.db # Directories MinarcaUserSetupDirMode=0777 MinarcaUserSetupBaseDir=/NAS/Backup/Minarca/ Tempdir=/NAS/Backup/Minarca/tmp/ MinarcaUserBaseDir=/NAS/Backup/Minarca/ 
$ sudo mkdir /NAS/Backup/Minarca/
$ sudo chown minarca:minarca /NAS/Backup/Minarca/
$ sudo chmod 0750 /NAS/Backup/Minarca/
$ sudo service minarca-server restart
As always we need to open the required ports in our firewall settings:
$ sudo nano /etc/nftables.conf
# minarca tcp dport 8080 accept 
$ sudo nano service nftables restart
And now we can open it to the internet:
$ sudo nano service nftables restart
$ sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/30-minarca
upstream minarca { server 127.0.0.1:8080; keepalive 64; } server { server_name minarca.naspi.webredirect.org; location / { proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded_for $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for; proxy_pass http://minarca; proxy_http_version 1.1; proxy_pass_request_headers on; proxy_set_header Connection "keep-alive"; proxy_store off; } listen 80; } 
$ sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/30-minarca /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/30-minarca
And enable SSL support, with HTTPS redirect:
$ sudo certbot --nginx
$ sudo service nginx restart

DNS records

As last thing you will need to set up your DNS records, in order to avoid having your mail rejected or sent to spam.

MX record

name: @ value: mail.naspi.webredirect.org TTL (if present): 90 

PTR record

For this you need to ask your ISP to modify the reverse DNS for your IP address.

SPF record

name: @ value: v=spf1 mx ~all TTL (if present): 90 

DKIM record

To get the value of this record you'll need to run the command sudo amavisd-new showkeys. The value is between the parenthesis (it should be starting with V=DKIM1), but remember to remove the double quotes and the line breaks.
name: dkim._domainkey value: V=DKIM1; P= ... TTL (if present): 90 

DMARC record

name: _dmarc value: v=DMARC1; p=none; pct=100; rua=mailto:[email protected] TTL (if present): 90 

Router ports

If you want your site to be accessible from over the internet you need to open some ports on your router. Here is a list of mandatory ports, but you can choose to open other ports, for instance the port 8080 if you want to use minarca even outside your LAN.

mailserver ports

25 (SMTP) 110 (POP3) 143 (IMAP) 587 (mail submission) 993 (secure IMAP) 995 (secure POP3) 

ssh port

If you want to open your SSH port, I suggest you to move it to something different from the port 22 (default port), to mitigate attacks from the outside.

HTTP/HTTPS ports

80 (HTTP) 443 (HTTPS) 

The end?

And now the server is complete. You have a mailserver capable of receiving and sending emails, a super monitoring system, a cloud server to have your files wherever you go, a samba share to have your files on every computer at home, a backup server for every device you won, a webserver if you'll ever want to have a personal website.
But now you can do whatever you want, add things, tweak settings and so on. Your imagination is your only limit (almost).
EDIT: typos ;)
submitted by Fly7113 to raspberry_pi [link] [comments]

Advanced Docker Security with AppArmor

So you have your Docker Containers deployed, which in turn are hosting critical applications of your organization? Great! So far, so good!
For the interest of the organization, it remains extremely crucial to keep not only the Containers but also the hosted applications protected from security threats. By default, a deployed Docker originally remains secured through an auto-generated profile docker-default for its containers. This profile, however, provides moderate security on the application level, and thus it remains highly recommended to implement a security profile through AppArmor which works at the process/program level of an application.

What is AppArmor?

AppArmor (Application Armor) is a Linux Security Module that allows to implement security on a program/process level. Specifically developed security profiles through AppArmor can allow capabilities like folder access, network access, and permission(or not) to read, write, or execute files.
One of the beauties of AppArmor is that it allows a Learning Mode which logs profile violations without preventing them proactively. The Learning Mode Log eventually helps administrators to create a security profile which forms a much hardened security armor based on an application's process execution. Default Security policies when clubbed with Learning Mode Logs, help forming security policies for even very complex applications in quick turnaround.
AppArmor proactively protects the operating system and applications from external or internal threats and even zero-day attacks by enforcing a specific rule set on a per-application basis. Security policies completely define what system resources individual applications can access, and with what privileges. Access is denied by default if no profile says otherwise.

Installing and Enabling AppArmor

Though AppArmor comes inbuilt with all Linux Kernels, it is not by default the security profile loaded with every boot. Apparmor can be set as the default security profile on every boot by setting the following parameter on kernel :
apparmor=1 security=apparmor
CONFIG_SECURITY_APPARMOR_BOOTPARAM_VALUE=1 CONFIG_DEFAULT_SECURITY_APPARMOR=y
To load all AppArmor security profiles on boot, enable apparmor.service.

Display AppArmor loaded profiles

The system default AppArmor comes with a number of security profiles, on top of which an administrator can add his own security profiles based on the Learning Mode. To check the list of AppArmor security profiles correctly loaded :
$ aa-enabled ------------ Yes 
To display the current loaded status use apparmor_status:
# apparmor_statusapparmor module is loaded. 29 profiles are loaded. 29 profiles are in enforce mode. ... 0 profiles are in complain mode. 0 processes have profiles defined. 0 processes are in enforce mode. 0 processes are in complain mode. 0 processes are unconfined but have a profile defined. 
Above you can see the loaded profiles and processes with their respective statuses.

Parsing AppArmor profiles

AppArmor allows a number of options using apparmor_parser to parse either its default or custom generated profiles. apparmor_parser is widely used to load, unload, debug, remove, replace, cache and match-strings within profiles out of the other available options.
-a - Default Action to load a new profile in enforce mode.
-C - Loading a new profile in complain mode.
-r - Overwrite an existing profile.
-R - Remove an existing profile in the kernel.
-V - Display the profile version.
-h - Display reference guide.

Understanding AppArmor profiles

AppArmor profiles are text files found under /etc/apparmor.d/. A quick look into a profile file explains its execution as shown below:
/etc/apparmor.d/usr.bin.test #include  profile test /uslib/test/test_binary { #include  # Main libraries and plugins /usshare/TEST/** r, /uslib/TEST/** rm, # Configuration files and logs @{HOME}/.config/ r, @{HOME}/.config/TEST/** rw, } 
Strings following the @ symbol are variables defined under abstractions (/etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/), tunables (/etc/apparmor.d/tunables/) or by the profile itself. #include includes other profile-files directly. Paths followed by a set of characters are access permissions while the Globbing Syntax helps with pattern matching.
Commonly used command options on profile files :
r - reading data
w - creating, deleting or write on an existing file
x - executing a file
m - memory mapping an executable file

Creating a new AppArmor profile

Creating an AppArmor profile can be done through a Systemic or Stand-Alone method.

1) Stand-Alone Profile Creation

(aa-genprof) : Used for creating a profile affecting single program/application which runs for a finite amount of time, such as a web browsing client, mail client, etc. Though a Stand-Alone profile is comparatively quicker and easier to be developed, it comes with its own limitations as such the profiling is lost on a reboot. A Stand-Alone profile can be created through AppArmor's aa-genprof profile generating utility. It runs aa-autodep on the specified program/application by creating an approximate profile, sets it to complain mode, reloads it into AppArmor, marks the log, and prompts the user to execute the program and exercise its functionality.
aa-genprof [ -d /path/to/profiles ] PROGRAM

2) Systemic Profile Creation

(aa-autodep): Used for creating a profile affecting multiple programs and/or applications that runs indefinitely or continuously across reboots, such as network server applications like mail servers, security policies, etc. This method updates all of the profiles on the system at once, as opposed to one or few targeted by Stand-Alone profiling.

Steps to create Systemic profile for a program :

  1. Run an initial aa-autodep to create an approximate profile for a program - this lets AppArmor consider the program for monitoring.
  2. Activate learning or complain mode for all profiled programs by entering aa-complain /etc/apparmor.d/*
  3. Run the application. Ensure that the running program gets to access each file representing its access needs. As a result, the execution might run for several days through multiple system reboots.
  4. Analyze the log with aa-logprof.
  5. Repeat Step 3 and Step 4 to generate an optimal Systemic profile. Subsequent iterations generate fewer messages and run faster.
  6. Edit the profiles in /etc/apparmor.d/ as required.
  7. Return to enforce mode using aa-enfore /etc/apparmor.d/* which eventually enforces the rules of the profiles.
  8. Rescan all kernel profiles to ensure no conflict.

Modifying an existing AppArmor profile

Disabling AppArmor

In case you would like to disable AppArmor for the current session, you can do so by clearing out all AppArmor profiles for the current session by # aa-teardown
Additionally to prevent the kernel from loading AppArmor profiles at the next boot disable apparmor.service and remove apparmor=1 security=apparmor from kernel parameters.
AppArmor when implemented properly, provides an enhanced level of security to the deployed containers at a program level. There are endless possibilities of creating varied profiles through Learning Mode, and hence makes it stand apart from the system generated docker-default profile.

This article was originally published on https://appfleet.com/blog/advanced-docker-security-with-apparmo and has been authorized by Appfleet for a republish.
submitted by GuessRemarkable to docker [link] [comments]

Snowden-Level Paranoia Trusted Hardware: what are the options right now and in the near future?

Hi, I know this question probably has been asked over and over but given some recent developments maybe the answers I knew are not up to date.
Let's say I want to buy/build a personal device (laptop mainly, but smartphone also taken in consideration) that is as much secure and free-as-in-freedom as possible. Mainly to use as a super-secure air-gapped portable machine. I'm talking about Snowden-level paranoia here. What are my options?
I need something able to run some flavor of Linux without any proprietary software/firmware. Better if the hardware design is also open, so that I could potentially inspect the silicon for hardware backdoors if I had a forensic lab with electron microscope etc. Bonus mention if it is not produced in China/Russia, ideally in Europe but I understand now I'm dreaming too much.
As far as I know the option that probably matches more closely what I need is a RMS-level solution: Thinpad X200/T400 with Libreboot. But it's old, difficult to service, and does not come with important security features (IOMMU, trusted boot, limited Qubes support etc).
All the Librem laptops are not an option because of the many binary blobs.
The Insurgo X230 looks like a good compromise, but it's still not completely ME-free (ME is minimized with ME_cleaner but still has some blobs that cannot be removed).
At this point, rather than the Insurgo I would say the MNT Reform looks like a much better deal (when it is delivered, for now preorder only). But still, has blob firmware for the DDR4 controller, and also the HDMI port requires blob (this is less critical, but still).
Anything else I missed laptop-wise?
Smartphone-wise the situation is much more complex (I still have to figure out whether to use Lineage OS or Graphene OS). As far as I understand, regarding the hardware the current "good" options are: Pinephone, Shiftphone, Fairphone. All of them are way too big for my hands. Let's not even consider the Librem 5 because that one I consider a sad failure.
Again, anything I missed?
What do you hope will be the next nice thing in terms of trusted hardware in the near future? Any good feelings about the OpenTitan project?
submitted by blanconijo to privacytoolsIO [link] [comments]

[TUTORIAL] How to use Multi-Monitors with Hybrid Graphics Card Intel-Nvidia in notebooks (tried with: Asus Rog Strix G531-GT) - DEBIAN BUSTER

Hello guys! I`m going to do this tutorial because i tried to use multi-monitor in my laptop for a long time and that was a big problem for my case.
This tutorial is for people who have a hybrid graphics card and bumblebee in debian.
My case:
- Rog Strix G531-GT (notebook)
- Intel® UHD Graphics 630
- GTX 1650

So, to it work, first you need to install all the NVIDIA drivers and get it working with the optirun command.
In my case i tried stable nvidia drivers which was Version 418.152, but it have some bugs after install when i tried to configure the xorg.conf file, which when start says something about missing device "mouse0". I reinstall all the debian and tried to use the backports, which have the Version 440.100 (via buster-backports) of nvidia drivers, and it installed well.
#ONLY USE BACKPORTS OR ONLY USE STABLE, DO NOT USE BOTH!
FIRST, VERY IMPORTANT: You should check which driver is okay for you, maybe trying one, if that is good and u dont see "bugs" when trying to configure, use it... In my case 418.152 give me a lot of bugs... i tried 440.100 and it worked ok. If you are using backports, try to download everything at the BACKPORTS, and not the STABLE one! If u are using the STABLE one, continues using the STABLE
To do it, first add the backport repository to /etc/apt/sources.list, which actually is
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian buster-backports main contrib non-free
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian buster-backports main contrib non-free

After that, to install linux headers and nvidia-driver do:
- apt update
- apt install -t buster-backports linux-headers-amd64
- apt install -t buster-backports nvidia-driver


Reboot and after that u already have the nvidia-drivers installed, BUT not working because the system dont use the nvidia driver by default. Next step is installation of two packages: bumblebee-nvidia and primus. So now you need to install bumblebee:
- apt install -t buster-backports bumblebee-nvidia primus
- apt install -t buster-backports mesa-utils \you will need the) mesa-utils too for some commands
I didnt need permissions to use the bumblebee commands, but if you need, follow that Post-installation


You may need to blacklist the nouveau drivers, because we are using the nvidia proprietary drivers. To do it, run:
- $ sudo bash -c "echo blacklist nouveau > /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nvidia-nouveau.conf"
- $ sudo bash -c "echo options nouveau modeset=0 >> /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nvidia-nouveau.conf"
then run
- $ cat /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nvidia-nouveau.conf
And the output should be like that:
blacklist nouveau
options nouveau modeset=0
The nouveau drivers are blacklisted successfully!


Now we have a lot of configurations to do.
The next thing to do is go to /etc/bumblebee/bumblebee.conf and open with nano.
add - Driver=nvidia
it should looks like:
# Configuration file for Bumblebee. Values should **not** be put between quotes ## Server options. Any change made in this section will need a server restart # to take effect. [bumblebeed] # The secondary Xorg server DISPLAY number VirtualDisplay=:8 # Should the unused Xorg server be kept running? Set this to true if waiting # for X to be ready is too long and don't need power management at all. KeepUnusedXServer=false # The name of the Bumbleblee server group name (GID name) ServerGroup=bumblebee # Card power state at exit. Set to false if the card shoud be ON when Bumblebee # server exits. TurnCardOffAtExit=false # The default behavior of '-f' option on optirun. If set to "true", '-f' will # be ignored. NoEcoModeOverride=false # The Driver used by Bumblebee server. If this value is not set (or empty), # auto-detection is performed. The available drivers are nvidia and nouveau # (See also the driver-specific sections below) Driver=nvidia # Directory with a dummy config file to pass as a -configdir to secondary X XorgConfDir=/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.d # Xorg binary to run XorgBinary=/uslib/xorg/Xorg ## Client options. Will take effect on the next optirun executed. [optirun] # Acceleration/ rendering bridge, possible values are auto, virtualgl and # primus. Bridge=auto # The method used for VirtualGL to transport frames between X servers. # Possible values are proxy, jpeg, rgb, xv and yuv. VGLTransport=proxy # List of paths which are searched for the primus libGL.so.1 when using # the primus bridge PrimusLibraryPath=/uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/primus:/uslib/i386-linux-gnu/primus # Should the program run under optirun even if Bumblebee server or nvidia card # is not available? AllowFallbackToIGC=false # Driver-specific settings are grouped under [driver-NAME]. The sections are # parsed if the Driver setting in [bumblebeed] is set to NAME (or if auto- # detection resolves to NAME). # PMMethod: method to use for saving power by disabling the nvidia card, valid # values are: auto - automatically detect which PM method to use # bbswitch - new in BB 3, recommended if available 

After that, go to /etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nouveau and open with nano.
add - BusID "", ex. BusID "PCI:00:02:0" in the Section "Device" \ to see the ID of your graphic cards, run in console: lspci | egrep 'VGA|3D')
it should looks like:
# Configuration file for Bumblebee. Values should **not** be put between quotes ## Server options. Any change made in this section will need a server restart # to take effect. [bumblebeed] # The secondary Xorg server DISPLAY number VirtualDisplay=:8 # Should the unused Xorg server be kept running? Set this to true if waiting # for X to be ready is too long and don't need power management at all. KeepUnusedXServer=false # The name of the Bumbleblee server group name (GID name) ServerGroup=bumblebee # Card power state at exit. Set to false if the card shoud be ON when Bumblebee # server exits. TurnCardOffAtExit=false # The default behavior of '-f' option on optirun. If set to "true", '-f' will # be ignored. NoEcoModeOverride=false # The Driver used by Bumblebee server. If this value is not set (or empty), # auto-detection is performed. The available drivers are nvidia and nouveau # (See also the driver-specific sections below) Driver=nvidia # Directory with a dummy config file to pass as a -configdir to secondary X XorgConfDir=/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.d # Xorg binary to run XorgBinary=/uslib/xorg/Xorg ## Client options. Will take effect on the next optirun executed. [optirun] # Acceleration/ rendering bridge, possible values are auto, virtualgl and # primus. Bridge=auto # The method used for VirtualGL to transport frames between X servers. # Possible values are proxy, jpeg, rgb, xv and yuv. VGLTransport=proxy # List of paths which are searched for the primus libGL.so.1 when using # the primus bridge PrimusLibraryPath=/uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/primus:/uslib/i386-linux-gnu/primus # Should the program run under optirun even if Bumblebee server or nvidia card # is not available? AllowFallbackToIGC=false # Driver-specific settings are grouped under [driver-NAME]. The sections are # parsed if the Driver setting in [bumblebeed] is set to NAME (or if auto- # detection resolves to NAME). # PMMethod: method to use for saving power by disabling the nvidia card, valid # values are: auto - automatically detect which PM method to use # bbswitch - new in BB 3, recommended if available # switcheroo - vga_switcheroo method, use at your own risk # none - disable PM completely # https://github.com/Bumblebee-Project/Bumblebee/wiki/Comparison-of-PM-methods ## Section with nvidia driver specific options, only parsed if Driver=nvidia [driver-nvidia] # Module name to load, defaults to Driver if empty or unset KernelDriver=nvidia PMMethod=auto # colon-separated path to the nvidia libraries LibraryPath=/uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu/nvidia:/uslib/i386-linux-gnu/nvidia:/uslib/x86_64-linux-gnu:/uslib/i386-linux-gnu # comma-separated path of the directory containing nvidia_drv.so and the # default Xorg modules path XorgModulePath=/uslib/nvidia,/uslib/xorg/modules XorgConfFile=/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nvidia # If set to true, will always unload the kernel module(s) even with # PMMethod=none - useful for newer Optimus models on which the kernel power # management works out of the box to power the card on/off without bbswitch. AlwaysUnloadKernelDriver=false ## Section with nouveau driver specific options, only parsed if Driver=nouveau [driver-nouveau] KernelDriver=nouveau PMMethod=auto XorgConfFile=/etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nouveau 

Do the same in /etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nvidia, and put the ID of the Discrete Nvidia Card.
add - BusID ""
add - Option "AllowEmptyInitialConfiguration" "true"
and at the END of the file, add
Section "Screen" Identifier "Screen0" Device "DiscreteNVidia" EndSection 
it should look like:
Section "ServerLayout" Identifier "Layout0" Option "AutoAddDevices" "true" Option "AutoAddGPU" "false" EndSection Section "Device" Identifier "DiscreteNvidia" Driver "nvidia" VendorName "NVIDIA Corporation" # If the X server does not automatically detect your VGA device, # you can manually set it here. # To get the BusID prop, run `lspci | egrep 'VGA|3D'` and input the data # as you see in the commented example. # This Setting may be needed in some platforms with more than one # nvidia card, which may confuse the proprietary driver (e.g., # trying to take ownership of the wrong device). Also needed on Ubuntu 13.04. BusID "PCI:01:00:0" # Setting ProbeAllGpus to false prevents the new proprietary driver # instance spawned to try to control the integrated graphics card, # which is already being managed outside bumblebee. # This option doesn't hurt and it is required on platforms running # more than one nvidia graphics card with the proprietary driver. # (E.g. Macbook Pro pre-2010 with nVidia 9400M + 9600M GT). # If this option is not set, the new Xorg may blacken the screen and # render it unusable (unless you have some way to run killall Xorg). Option "ProbeAllGpus" "false" Option "AllowEmptyInitialConfiguration" "true" Option "NoLogo" "true" Option "UseEDID" "true" # Option "UseDisplayDevice" "none" EndSection Section "Screen" Identifier "Screen0" Device "DiscreteNVidia" EndSection 
REBOOT NOW, IS IMPORTANT!!


At this point, the TEST for bumblebee should be working!
Test
Install mesa-demos and use glxgears to test if if Bumblebee works with your Optimus system:
$ optirun glxgears -info
If it fails, try the following commands:
64 bit system:
$ optirun glxspheres64
32 bit system:
$ optirun glxspheres32
If the window with animation shows up, Optimus with Bumblebee is working.
Note: If glxgears failed, but glxspheresXX worked, always replace "glxgears" with "glxspheresXX" in all cases.
If the bumblebee still not working, you should look why isnt it working. You can ask me maybe i can help with some information! I tried a lot of things and maybe i can help.
now finally, you can run anything with the optirun command, like: optirun virtualbox... or optirun (a game) and it will work with you graphic card.
But still, when you connect a monitor at the HDMI output, the monitor will not work...
For that, finnaly, we can do that:
To use multi monitors, we need to see this section, which is what happen to me: Output wired to the NVIDIA chip
At this point, you may need to configure the /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-intel.conf
and /etc/bumblebee/xorg.conf.nvidia, as it says in the tutorial. After that reboot your system and try again the command: optirun intel-virtual-output
It should finally works, if you have connected another monitor in HDMI output and try the command optirun intel-virtual-output, it will start in the monitor a continuation for the X session, which works pretty well!!

Well, that was hard to do for me, and i hope that information can help someone. If something is confusing or you cant do the second monitor work, just type in comments, i will try to help...

One important thing to do is: do not try to use xorg.conf file, just delete it and keep the linux to do it by itself. Every time which i tried to use the xorg.conf file it broke my gnome startup and i need to start debian in recovery mode and go to /etc/X11, and run rm -R xorg.conf (which delete the xorg file), or rename it to the linux do not read the informations there.
#TIPS: For a good use of that, you can go to debian keyboard configuration, and configure a new shortcut with the command optirun intel-virtual-output.
When you press ctrl+alt+y that will start the second monitor for you :D
https://preview.redd.it/3luethknnfj51.png?width=987&format=png&auto=webp&s=a7eaf1a4c029237fd9b25ca0194c99d84fcb83a5
so that is #learning_with_linux
thanks

https://preview.redd.it/8g753mxelfj51.jpg?width=4032&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1d24f618dcd3bb92a760a531112e5e3852e524d5
submitted by MrMineToons to debian [link] [comments]

Setting up a domain controller using SAMBA 4 on Ubuntu 20.04 with both IPv4 and IPv6 support

(Note: this borrows heavily from https://github.com/thctlo/samba4/blob/mastefull-howto-Ubuntu18.04-samba-AD_DC.txt)
Prerequisites:
  1. Create your Ubuntu 20.04 server system. The details vary depending on what type of host it is. You’ll need to give it a static IP address and as such set up routing. Here’s my /etc/netplan/10-lxc.yaml file in case you’re using LXC:
    network: version: 2 ethernets: eth0: dhcp4: false dhcp6: false addresses: [10.0.0.2/16] gateway4: 10.0.0.1 nameservers: search: - example.com addresses: - 8.8.8.8 
    DHCP6 will need to be set to true if you set your router to provide DHCP6 for IPv6 addresses otherwise it can be set to false and your host will use router advertisements to configure itself. (IPv6 is wonderfully easy!)
    Set the timezone. If using an installer without a GUI you'll need to do this manually, try this:
    timedatectl set-timezone America/New_York 
    1.1 If using LXC, make sure your container is privileged. From the host, type something like:
    lxc stop dc1 sudo lxc config edit dc1 
    Add the following under, and indented to show it's a child of, 'config:'
    raw.lxc: |- lxc.cap.drop = lxc.cap.drop = sys_module mac_admin mac_override security.privileged: "true" 
    It's a YAML file so make sure the indenting is followed as above. These are necessary to make domain provisioning and NTP work.
    Restart and presumably go back in using these commands:
    lxc start dc1 lxc shell dc1 
  2. Set the name – set the shortname using hostnamectl
    hostnamectl set-hostname dc1 
    and edit /etc/hosts so that the first line looks something like this:
    127.0.1.1 dc1.example.com dc1 
  3. Set up a user with sudo permissions to administer the machine. You don’t want to be logged in as root most of the time, and most of the time you don’t even need to use ‘sudo’ for this.
  4. Install openssh-server
    apt-get install openssh-server 
    If you want, you can continue the rest of this remotely from the login you created.
  5. Install SAMBA
    apt install samba winbind libnss-winbind libpam-winbind ntp bind9 binutils ldb-tools krb5-user 
    At this stage you will probably be asked for your Kerberos settings. IMPORTANT: TYPE THE KERBEROS DOMAIN (EXAMPLE.ORG) IN UPPERCASE. Any other questions you should be able to guess the answers for or they may be obvious anyway.
    systemctl disable nmbd smbd winbind systemctl stop nmbd smbd winbind systemctl unmask samba-ad-dc systemctl enable samba-ad-dc 
  6. Set up NTP
    install -d /valib/samba/ntp_signd -m 750 -o root -g ntp cat << EOF >> /etc/ntp.conf # ###### Needed for Samba 4 ###### # extra info, in the restrict -4 or -6 added mssntp. # Location of the samba ntp_signed directory ntpsigndsocket /valib/samba/ntp_signd # EOF sed -i 's/restrict -4 default kod notrap nomodify nopeer noquery limited/restrict -4 default kod notrap nomodify nopeer noquery limited mssntp/g' /etc/ntp.conf sed -i 's/restrict -6 default kod notrap nomodify nopeer noquery limited/restrict -6 default kod notrap nomodify nopeer noquery limited mssntp/g' /etc/ntp.conf systemctl restart ntp systemctl status ntp ntpq -p 
    Some of the above may show error messages under LXC, if so verify you did 1.1 above. If you still get messages, don't panic.
  7. Tweak Kerberos
    All we really need is the domain part for Kerberos, so:
    cd /etc sudo mv krb5.conf krb5.conf.ORG sudo head -n2 krb5.conf.ORG | tee krb5.conf 
    You may also want to edit the krb5.conf file and add these lines to the end to maximize compatibility with other Kerberos implementations:
    default_tgs_enctypes = aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96 aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96 rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5 default_tkt_enctypes = aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96 aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96 rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5 permitted_enctypes = aes256-cts-hmac-sha1-96 aes128-cts-hmac-sha1-96 rc4-hmac des-cbc-crc des-cbc-md5 
  8. Set up Samba
    Clear the cobwebs
    rm /valib/samba/*.tdb rm /vacache/samba/*.tdb rm /vacache/samba/browse.dat mv /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.ORIG 
  9. Create the domain
    If you're using LXC, and you didn't set it up as a privileged container (see 1.1), this is where that will go wrong. So recheck you did 1.1 properly. if you get an error message.
    samba-tool domain provision --use-rfc2307 --realm=EXAMPLE.COM --domain=EXAMPLE --dns-backend=BIND9_DLZ 
    On my system at least this generated a lot of garbage debugging type output but it did end up creating the domain. It will give you a virtually unusable Administrator account password, don't worry we're going to change it. But there's a couple of things we'll do before that.
  10. Set up BIND
    Edit /etc/bind/named.conf.options, to look something like this:
    options { forwarders { 8.8.8.8; }; dnssec-validation auto; listen-on-v6 { any; } notify no; empty-zones-enable: no; tkey-gssapi-keytab "/valib/samba/bind-dns/dns.keytab"; allow-transfer {10.0.0.2;}; } 
    Edit /etc/bind/named.conf.local, and add the line:
    include "/valib/samba/bind-dns/named.conf"; 
    Edit /valib/samba/bind-dns/named.conf, and uncomment out the last entry (yes, I know you're running a more recent version of BIND, that DLL works with it, trust me.)
    Restart BIND
    systemctl restart named 
    Confirm it works - use dig (install it using apt-get install bind9-dnsutils if it wasn't installed already)
    dig @10.0.0.2 www.google.com 
    Finally point this VM to its own DNS server. Edit /etc/netplan/ and change 8.8.8.8 there to 10.0.0.2 and reboot.
  11. Make the administrator account usable
    You probably want to set a password on the latter you'll remember. To do this, use this command:
    sudo samba-tool user setpassword Administrator 
    That's a helpful command to know anyway - anyone with root access to the DC can set passwords here too. If you get a complexity error, you can disable that check using this command do it again:
    sudo samba-tool domain passwordsettings set --complexity=off 
    You can test this all works using:
    kinit Administrator 
    If your password is accepted, not only did it all work, but you're now logged in and can stop using sudo with most SAMBA commands. If you add -k yes to the end of any samba-tool command it will accept you as authorized.
  12. Add a reverse DNS zone and set up DHCP.
    samba-tool dns zonecreate dc1.example.com 0.10.in-addr.arpa -k yes 
    For DHCP I'm going to offer three choices of how to set up DHCP in this environment: use your router's implementation, put one here, and put one here that does DNS updates.
    12.1 Your router
    If you're going to use your router's, you're all set. If you need to set up IP addresses for specific devices, set up the router to give them out (or just disable DHCP on your device itself and set the IP manually, outside of the range your DHCP server issues them), and, if you're not adding them to the domain, add DNS entries like this:
    samba-tool dns add dc1.example.com example.com mypc A 10.0.0.3 -k yes samba-tool dns add dc1.example.com 0.10.in-addr.arpa 3.0 PTR mypc.example.com -k yes 
    Devices that are added to the domain will have their DNS entries managed by SAMBA itself, you don't have to worry about them. If you add a static IP for a host and add DNS for it, you'll need to delete the DNS entries if you then decide to add it to your Active Directory domain.
    12.2 Local ISC DHCP Server
    The second option, running ISC DHCP, is mostly just as easy, it has some advantages that you can log activity and easily see, for example, what each device identified itself as by checking the logs. Again, just use samba-tool as in 12.1 to update IP addresses for static devices that haven't been joined to the network.
    Install isc-dhcp-server using:
    sudo apt-get install isc-dhcp-server 
    Then edit your /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf to look something like this:
    authoritative; ddns-update-style none; option subnet-mask 255.255.0.0; option broadcast-address 10.0.255.255; option time-offset 0; option routers 10.0.0.1; option domain-name "example.com"; option domain-name-servers 10.0.0.2; option netbios-name-servers 10.0.0.2; option ntp-servers 10.0.0.2; subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.0.0 { range 10.0.1.1 10.0.127.255; default-lease-time -1; max-lease-time -1; } host mypc { hardware ethernet 40:50:60:70:80:90; fixed-address 10.0.0.3; option host-name "mypc"; } 
    "mypc" is an example of a static address, you can add as many host entries as you want.
    Finally, restart DHCP
    systemctl restart isc-dhcp-server 
    12.3 Local ISC Server with DNS updates
    This is what every lazy system administrator wants, and to be fair it can be helpful as long as you have full control over your own network. I cover some of the issues in my preview article. But it's dangerous - essentially you're giving any device that has access to your network authorization to add host records to your DNS server that point at it - at least, as long as it's for the DHCP IPv4 address they've been given. So a malicious entity could, for example, override "login.example.com" and point it at their server, which might be a problem if people go to http://login.example.com whenever they need to enter passwords to access secured content on your system. If nothing else it'd be easy to do a DoS attack. For anything other than a home network or a small office, you shouldn't do this. At all. But if it's your own network, and you administer it, and you monitor what gets plugged into it, then it can save some headaches.
    Given that usage profile, I'm going to make it slightly more insecure than Samba recommends, because Samba's recommended solution... doesn't work. The people who put it together are OK with it not working because in their view it doesn't break anything they themselves need, but it does break IPv6 and certain roaming scenarios, and it does result in error messages that you're going to forget the meaning of and implications of if you don't add something to your domain for a while.
    So here's the solution:
    Do everything in 12.2, but add the following lines to the end of /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf:
    on commit { set noname = concat("dhcp-", binary-to-ascii(10, 8, "-", leased-address)); set ClientIP = binary-to-ascii(10, 8, ".", leased-address); set ClientDHCID = concat ( suffix (concat ("0", binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "", substring(hardware,1,1))),2), ":", suffix (concat ("0", binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "", substring(hardware,2,1))),2), ":", suffix (concat ("0", binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "", substring(hardware,3,1))),2), ":", suffix (concat ("0", binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "", substring(hardware,4,1))),2), ":", suffix (concat ("0", binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "", substring(hardware,5,1))),2), ":", suffix (concat ("0", binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "", substring(hardware,6,1))),2) ); set ClientName = pick-first-value(option host-name, config-option-host-name, client-name, noname); log(concat("Commit: IP: ", ClientIP, " DHCID: ", ClientDHCID, " Name: ", ClientName)); execute("/uslocal/bin/dhcp-dyndns.sh", "add", ClientIP, ClientDHCID, ClientName); } on release { set ClientIP = binary-to-ascii(10, 8, ".", leased-address); set ClientDHCID = concat ( suffix (concat ("0", binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "", substring(hardware,1,1))),2), ":", suffix (concat ("0", binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "", substring(hardware,2,1))),2), ":", suffix (concat ("0", binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "", substring(hardware,3,1))),2), ":", suffix (concat ("0", binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "", substring(hardware,4,1))),2), ":", suffix (concat ("0", binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "", substring(hardware,5,1))),2), ":", suffix (concat ("0", binary-to-ascii (16, 8, "", substring(hardware,6,1))),2) ); log(concat("Release: IP: ", ClientIP)); execute("/uslocal/bin/dhcp-dyndns.sh", "delete", ClientIP, ClientDHCID); } on expiry { set ClientIP = binary-to-ascii(10, 8, ".", leased-address); log(concat("Expired: IP: ", ClientIP)); execute("/uslocal/bin/dhcp-dyndns.sh", "delete", ClientIP, "", "0"); } 
    Now go to Samba's Wiki and copy their script to /uslocal/bin/dhcp-dyndns.sh, and make it executable:
    sudo cp dhcp-dyndns.sh /uslocal/bin/ sudo chmod a+x /uslocal/bin/dhcp-dyndns.sh 
    Set up the dhcpduser:
    samba-tool user create dhcpduser --description="Unprivileged user for TSIG-GSSAPI DNS updates via ISC DHCP server" --random-password -k yes samba-tool user setexpiry dhcpduser --noexpiry -k yes samba-tool group addmembers DnsAdmins dhcpduser -k yes sudo samba-tool domain exportkeytab [email protected] /etc/dhcpduser.keytab sudo chown dhcpd.root /etc/dhcpduser.keytab sudo chmod 400 /etc/dhcpduser.keytab 
    Allow domain hosts (computers added to the domain) to manage their own DNS entries (but alas this command also means they can manage DNS in general):
    samba-tool dsacl set -k yes -H ldap://dc1.example.com --objectdn=CN=MicrosoftDNS,DC=DomainDnsZones,DC=example,DC=com "--sddl=(A;CI;RPWPCRCCDCLCLORCWOWDSDDTSW;;;DC)" 
    If you don't want to do the last bit, your options are limited. My advice is ask yourself why you don't like the idea, because your reasons almost certainly can be expanded to the entire concept of allowing DHCP to add DNS entries based upon self identified hosts. Consider instead doing 11.1 or 11.2.
And that's it. You can test everything's working by adding new sites to the domain. For Windows clients, Microsoft has the documentation. For Ubuntu, well, that's my next article.
submitted by squiggleslash to u/squiggleslash [link] [comments]

Practicing SR since July 2017; finally conquered Nocturnal Emissions for 3 Whole Months using Subliminals

2 accounts got shadowbanned for uploading this post. Spam filter kept on removing it on Semenretention. Messaged the moderators for help, but they didn't care. Takes less than 3 minutes to approve a post from the spam folder. No idea if they read this post.

First time making a Reddit post.
Terminology:
Wet dream/WD – sexual dream causing semen emission while sleeping
Nocturnal Emission/NE – semen emission occurring while sleeping even without dreaming
Semen-retention/SR streak – avoiding porn, masturbation, and ejaculation whether conscious or unconscious
Nofap Hardmode – avoiding porn, masturbation, and conscious ejaculation. Unconscious ejaculation/WD is considered fine.

As the title suggests, my current streak started in the middle of June 2017. Haven’t watched any porn or masturbated in 3 years. Experienced almost all the benefits such as massive attraction (men, women, children), an aura/energy surrounding me, enhanced charisma, less need for sleep, insane levels of energy, drive, and motivation, zero anxiety or fear, massive confidence occasionally bordering on arrogance, increased manifestation/LOA, people admiring/respecting me for no reason, online attraction, less procrastination, better athletic performance, greater creativity/intelligence, the desire to live a purposeful life, greater emphasis on spirituality, and much much more. Could probably write several posts just on the benefits themselves. Only thing that didn’t improve was my skin, which was later fixed using subliminals.
It’s been a long journey, so I’ll start with background information, and later elaborate on how I managed to go from nocturnal emissions every 5 days (avg) to having a perfect SR streak for 3 months.
Used to watch anime which led to hentai (2013), and eventually western/japanese porn. Don’t even bother to search these terms on Google. It’s not worth it. Thankfully, those days are long behind me. As a side-note, I discovered the nofap/semen-retention subreddit in November 2017. Didn’t even know about SR before that.
I was raised a Catholic in a fairly religious family. Always started various streaks, and eventually broke them due to boredom/emotional coping/curiosity about new videos. Thankfully, I got good grades, read books, and was interested in self-development, but all that time spent on porn was a complete waste. Assuming I spent at least 2 hours everyday for 4 years (1460 days), it amounts to 122 complete days or around 4 months in total. It’s pretty sad on reflection, but at least the experience is now absorbed, and I can write this post.
On June 2017, after summer break started and final exams were over, I decided to permanently quit this habit. Downloaded an application called Cold Turkey and completely blocked all websites I used to visit. Now use Leechblock, which is available on most browsers (also use it to block/restrict access to non-NSFW websites which impair productivity like ESPN). Started 30 minutes of daily meditation (mindfulness + metta). Still continue the habits to this day, although the length is increased to 1 hour. Read Mindfulness in Plain English by Bhante Gunaratana and Lovingkindness by Sharon Salzberg for instructions. Have re-read these books multiple times.
Mindfulness will allow you to be self-aware of your mental conditioning, while metta (feeling compassion for yourself, a friend, neutral person, and enemy) can remove thoughts of lust and fundamentally alter your mental programming. Compassion is a very powerful exercise. Read “The Mindful Path to Self-Compassion by Christopher Germer” while you’re at it and learn tonglen. All of these books contain zero fluff, and are invaluable reads.
Started drinking 16 glasses of water (thought it would help skin, but helped in other ways), and doing 100 pushups + 100 sit-ups everyday. Increased it to 200 pushups + 200 sit-ups after 1 month. After 2 months, I made a decent amount of gains (SR helps), and people started asking me workout tips and what gym I go to. Had a Kindle Paperwhite, which is frankly one of my most valued possessions. Still works perfectly fine after 5 years, and costs only $130. Buy one now. Read a lot of books mostly consisting of biographies/spirituality/practical social skills/800+ page novels for around 6 hours per day. Still try to read for at least 15 minutes/1 chapter even when extremely busy. Will post a small booklist at the end of this post.
You can upload books to it for free if you lack money. Visit “gen.lib.rus.ec” without quotes, download the ebook in epub/mobi format, open it with Calibre (https://calibre-ebook.com/), and send it to Kindle using USB. Knowledge is an investment that produces continuous returns. Warren Buffett spends 80% of his time just reading! and takes action based on that knowledge.
Even managed to have the motivation to learn Japanese by joining a foreign language exchange website. People, especially women, accepted and sent a lot of invitations to have a conversation; didn’t realize online attraction was due to SR back then. None of us showed our faces, so my physical appearance had nothing to do with it. From experience, the best way to learn a language was to make a phrase sheet with the most common phrases/questions, such as “okay”, “that’s awesome”, “what is that word in English/Japanese?” Basically a human AI bot. Don’t waste time trying to learn how to write the alphabet, although my primary purpose was to learn how to speak. Google Translate is good enough to understand the pronunciation.
I learned Japanese primarily by watching Terrace House. First watched the episode with subtitles, then re-watched it without, while simultaneously writing all the connectives/conversational phrases. You can try unique methods to remember, but brute-force memorization/review worked the best. Never tried Anki since it was cumbersome to use.
For the accent, the best way is to watch Japanese people trying to speak English, and try to mirror their accent as much as possible. It honestly helps. After 3 months, I could have a full 1 hour conversation in Japanese with a native speaker without looking at any notes. I wasn’t “fluent” (still stuttered and made mistakes), but it was a huge amount of progress for starting from scratch. Eventually after 6 months, I gave up practicing/speaking the language. I was mainly trying to fulfill a childhood fantasy, and I’m glad I tried since I learned a lot from it and got to talk with interesting people. But in reality, I stopped watching anime, and honestly never needed to speak Japanese in real-life. Now I barely remember any of the words, except a few basic phrases. Could probably last 30 seconds of full conversation at best.
So, everything was going great until December 2017. During this time period, I probably had wet dreams/nocturnal emissions every 1 – 2 months. Barely felt much difference since there was a decent time interval between emissions. Drank 2 glasses of water everyday before bed, slept on my stomach, and ate spicy food (practices that cause nocturnal emissions), but was perfectly fine. However in December I started having emissions every 2 weeks. Initially didn’t care about it. In January it started happening every 1 week. Nothing really changed in my life during this time to cause emissions to increase. Then it started happening every 5 days, every 3 days, sometimes even 2 days in a row!
Most of you will have no idea how terrible it feels to be on top of the world, and then suddenly crash down. The difference between living life with/without SR benefits is night and day. Even after sleeping 10 hours, I used to feel completely exhausted. People ignored me, or worse started “joking” around me. Complete disrespect by friends, family, and acquaintances. No energy/motivation to do anything. Constant brain fog, could barely concentrate. Felt even worse than my porn days when I ejaculated everyday. Voice completely shot, started feeling anxious about oral presentations for no reason, when I always excelled. Felt like my soul was dying. Those were really dark times. People started saying I “changed”, and started pointing out and constantly magnifying my flaws. It’s strange how people exaggerate our skills/talents on SR, while they completely ignore them post WD/ejaculation, and focus only on your flaws/mistakes. It makes you lose trust in everyone around you, as if all of them are energy vampires who only like you due to SR.
I grew desperate. During this whole time I meditated, practiced no lust/no arousal as best as possible since July 2017, yet emissions increased massively in frequency. Some occurred due to sexual dreams, but most were nocturnal emissions. Thought I had a UTI at first, and went to a general practitioner. He didn’t seem very reliable, so I went to a prominent urologist. Did all sorts of tests, paid a good amount of money, and the doctor said everything was fine. Having nocturnal emissions every 5 days was perfectly normal at my age. Encouraged me to masturbate regularly if it became an inconvenience :)
So medical science obviously failed. Started following all the tips/methods in this subreddit, and believe me I tried almost everything no matter how uncomfortable or time-consuming. Omad, avoid food/water before bed, vegetarianism, tantric meditation, different diets, various sleeping positions, no/increased meditation before bed, no/more exercise, yogic exercises, qigong, some tips mentioned by Soaring Eagle, prayed to God. None of them worked. The only method I didn’t try extensively were kegels. Initially tried a normal + reverse kegel routine, then found an article by coincidence on this subreddit about someone who permanently damaged their penis from doing kegels. Immediately stopped, thank you to that person for sharing your experience. It’s as if the universe was looking out for me. Best to avoid such risky methods even if you’re desperate. Currently sleep on my back since it avoids any "accidental physical stimulation" from occurring.
So this nocturnal emission phenomena continued for over a year. Some methods worked better than others, while for some, I wasn’t sure if it was merely the placebo effect. In mid-2019 I came across subliminal videos (finally the good part!) on YouTube. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P0W5AB1sGr0) This video explains it more thoroughly, but basically you convert affirmations (sentences like “I am happy/smart/handsome”) into audio using text-to-speech software and reprogram your subconscious mind. Tried a beauty subliminal (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEXaAsm-Iys) as a joke, but the next day I noticed changes in my facial structure. Listened for an hour the first day, which was easy given the music. You have no idea how amazing it feels to know that you can control your reality just by using your mind. Completely magical. Supposedly it works due to the Law of Attraction; you can find out more by reading/watching “The Secret” by Rhonda Byrne, and later reading all the books by Neville Goddard. Started using a skin subliminal as well (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iqi8Q80pspk and later moved onto https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=COxz8hvl14Y ), and now my skin is completely normal. Visited prominent US dermatologists, tried all sorts of acne medicine including Accutane, and even did SR, yet none of them worked. Skin was pretty terrible, and I was glad it got fixed. Took around 4 months of daily listening although it can be shortelonger depending on your belief, blockages, and levels of positivity. There’s a CIA document on holographic universes, astral projection, time travel, and psychic powers if you need scientific validation: https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP96-00788R001700210016-5.pdf
Disclaimer: Although there can be bad subliminal makers, they are very rare, and there has been only 2 of them in the history of the community. Someone named MindPower and Rose subliminals. The vast majority (99%) put positive affirmations. It’s best that you verify by checking all the comments, seeing their subscriber count, general personality, etc, but ultimately there’s no guarantee. The only way to make sure the affirmations are 100% positive and safe are to make them yourself or use a subliminal that blocks negative affirmations.
One thing to note is that physical change (biokinesis; search that term)/spiritual subliminals utilize the prana in your body to a certain extent to make changes. It makes sense since physical change is essentially a psychic poweenergy work. So your SR benefits/aura might temporarily decrease. Hydration is also recommended, and you will notice feeling thirsty. Personally drink 20 glasses of water everyday.
Obviously, my interest now turned towards using subliminals to cure nocturnal emissions. Unfortunately there’s a huge lack of subliminals regarding semen-retention or those targeted towards nocturnal emissions. Initially bought a subliminal using a paid request (you pay a subliminal maker for a specialized subliminal), but it didn’t work that well. Desired to be permanently free of nocturnal emissions, or at least reduce the frequency to once a month. So I decided to make my own subliminal. The affirmations will be posted below, and this is how I eventually cured my nocturnal emissions.
Steps on how to make your own subliminal:
  1. Write all the affirmations in a word document and save it.
  2. Download text-to-speech software like Balabolka (http://www.cross-plus-a.com/balabolka.htm) and output the audio file in wav format (you want both uncompressed + lossless)
  3. Optional but recommended; download an audio editor like Audacity (https://www.audacityteam.org/), and fast-forward the audio as much as possible using the “Change Tempo” effect. Personally I speed the audio to one second and then loop it 1000x. Continue the process as much as possible, but never make the audio length less than 1 second. Some subliminal makers make their subliminals even more powerful by creating multiple audio streams of their affirmations using different voices, merging all the voices together, and speeding them up. It’s called layering. Why super-sped affirmations work better can be somewhat explained by this article (https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/sensorium/201812/experiments-suggest-humans-can-directly-observe-the-quantum), but science still doesn’t have all the answers. Will take time.
  4. Converting the affirmations to binary code (https://www.rapidtables.com/convert/numbeascii-to-binary.html) is a technique some subliminal makers use. Supposedly it penetrates the subconscious faster.
Affirmations + Audio Link: https://mega.nz/foldeWcwhhAia#RmD8e0I3uzjyeDdW22wEHg
Listened to this personal subliminal for 1 hour everyday for an entire month. Still listen just to be safe. Took months of testing and editing affirmations to make it perfect. Experienced massive sexual dreams on certain days, more than normal, and found out that entities could be responsible. Try to avoid this subreddit as well, since reading the posts can trigger memories. More energetically sensitive now, and sometimes there’s a lot of low-vibrational energy. On a side-note, porn cripples your aura and invites negative entities (https://www.awakeningstaryoga.com/blog/expanding-away-from-porn-aura).
Non-subliminal solutions:
  1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g5-DrYahaSc (morphic field)
  2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWK0D1g069I (powerful aura cleanse; Tibetan bowl sounds)
  3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7moRsibNyMA (reiki)
Subliminal solutions (ordered in terms of effectiveness):
  1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yLeubTQv65Q
  2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XvyPscRD1ss
  3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NTmnrFzR0_Q (for spells, curses, black magic, etc)
  4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Kt9s5tY1YE (last resort)
The entire channel is a gem; these were some of the best. Have used them for a few months and feel much lighter and peaceful; experienced only headaches due to subconscious absorbing the affirmations, but zero negative effects.
Advice: Remember to immediately download any subliminal video you find that is useful in wav format (https://www.savethevideo.com/download). Subliminal channels are sometimes deleted by YouTube (spam filter) or the creators themselves.
Waited 3 whole months before deciding to make a Reddit post to make sure the method was 100% foolproof. Remember many people offering solutions in the past, yet 1 month later they would have another wd/nocturnal emission.
The first month there was a lot of fear. Will I have a wet dream/nocturnal emission tonight? Was so traumatized it was difficult getting to sleep every night. After the 2nd month, I experimented with sleeping on my stomach and eating/drinking before bed. Nothing happened. Stopped recently to stay careful.
After 2 years of suffering, this is a method that has worked. Try and see for yourself.

Present day:
How do you feel now? Some days it’s meh (due to flatline) like today; on other days I feel divine. No idea why flatline still occurs. Have regained all the benefits, feel love and happiness all the time. Experience intense states of bliss in meditation more frequently, although it’s just a distraction.
Religiously/Spiritually I’ve moved from Christianity to Buddhism/Advaita Vedanta/parts of New Age. Found them more practical and useful in life. Was inspired to aim for spiritual enlightenment after reading “The 3 pillars of Zen” by Philip Kapleau. Read it, it might change your life.
Have attended a number of meditation retreats now, along with 10-day ones. Everyone reading this post should try it. Understood how much our mental programming defined us, and that we aren’t are thoughts. Our childhood traumas define so much of our habitual reactions. Realized its okay to feel bored rather than chasing after constant stimulation.
Even attended a Jhana retreat, which is exclusive for people who have attended prior retreats. Entered intense states of meditative absorption, understood the permeability/impermanence of reality, and had all sorts of mystical experiences. Experienced past lives; can confirm my mind did not make it up, since it’s an experience you can constantly replicate using the same methods. Before attempting such methods, you need to have the ability to sit down and meditate continuously for at least 3 hours. If you live in the US, attend IMS (Insight Meditation Society) or any prominent Vipassana/Theravada related retreat. Zen is a valid form of enlightenment, but it personally felt unstructured.
Gave up music, took time since I was convinced it was needed for creativity. Instead, it was just a substitute source of dopamine and a way to avoid my emotions. Have much less brain fog after quitting. Only communicate using regular phone calls these days, which no one uses, and Snapchat/WhatsApp for texting. Avoid stories, waste of time. Instagram/TwitteFacebook are a waste of time unless you are using it for business purposes. The only social media you really need is LinkedIn.
Women: You’ll learn more about them by reading romantic novels, Korean mangas, and watching Kdramas then reading all that seduction/red pill stuff. Focus on general charisma (men and women) instead of a specific gender. Read “The Charisma Myth” by Olivia Fox Cabane; it’s the most practical book on social skills I have ever read, and possibly the most life-changing as well. Teaches you self-awareness, applies Buddhist psychology to social interaction. Used to train executives in Google, read it now (and do all the exercises). The bibliography sent me on a rabbit hole that made me read ton of books on psychotherapy, meditation, mindfulness, and Buddhism; this was before SR. Inspired me to practice meditation, although the habit only became regular after SR.
Read books such as Crucial Conversations by Al Switzer, Difficult Conversations by Douglas Stone, How to Talk so Kids will Listen by Adele Faber (works very well in general since even adults have childhood programming, and can act like children), Never Split the Difference by Chris Voss (FBI's chief international hostage and kidnapping negotiator from 2003 to 2007), Getting More by Stuart Diamond (trains negotiators at Google), and Pitch Anything by Oren Klaff (more theoretical but useful). Also read The Definitive Book of Body Language by Allan Pease and What Every Body is Saying by Joe Navarro. These are all books that will greatly improve your human interactions and contain limited fluff. Have re-read all of these books in difficult times, and they have never let me down. You should read it as well. Even if you become a monk, there’s lots of social infighting even in monasteries. Highly-developed social skills are invaluable whenever you are dealing with individuals. Read “How to make friends and influence people” by Dale Carnegie once in a while, since most forget to apply his “basic” advice. Learned a lot about oral presentations by watching Alan Shore on Boston Legal (TV show).
Current position in life? Studying for a bachelor’s degree. My family is financially well-off, and my father is paying for my college tuition and dorm. Scholarships aren’t available for all income levels. Although I come from “privilege”, the above information can help anyone regardless of their financial position. We live in an era where information is accessible to all social classes, so excuses aren’t that relevant. If you’re practicing SR, you are already 20 steps closer to success. The tips above can be applied for free as long as you have a computesmartphone. Read books starting from today, knowledge is a source of power. People spend so much time reading the news, scrolling social media feeds, reacting to comments, chatting about useless things with friends, binging shows on Netflix, browsing YouTube/Reddit, that time quietly passes by. Time is the most valuable commodity you have; don’t waste such a limited resource on things that will contribute nothing towards your purpose in life. Once it’s spent, you can never get it back.
Personally, I schedule the next day before going to bed. Leisure, Reading, Schoolwork, Meditation, everything is mapped out perfectly. Try to eliminate habits that just waste time and stick to your schedule perfectly (working on it myself). If you feel tired after work/studying, take a nap or meditate instead of receiving even more stimulation from videogames, YouTube, or other artificial dopamine sources. Try NoSurf.

Basic Booklist:

Spirituality:
  1. The End of Your World by Adyashanti (fantastic writer; must-read if you have had an awakening experience or believe you are "enlightened")
  2. How to Attain Enlightenment -> The Essence of Enlightenment by James Swartz (best introduction to Advaita Vedanta I have read so far)
  3. I am That by Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj (essence of Advaita)
  4. In the Buddha's Words by Bhikkhu Bodhi (best introduction to Buddhist scripture)
  5. Why Buddhism is True by Robert Wright (secular perspective but informative; his previous book The Moral Animal is a good introduction to evolutionary psychology. Read this first if you are non-spiritual)
  6. Wisdom Wise and Deep by Shaila Catherine (comprehensive introduction by one of the best Jhana teachers in the US)
  7. The Visuddhimagga
  8. Manual of Insight by Mahasi Sayadaw
  9. Emptiness: A Practical Guide by Guy Armstrong (good introduction to the Buddhist version of reality)
  10. Books by Loch Kelly (practical guide to non-dual meditation practices within Buddhism; The Little Book of Being by Diana Winston may be a better introduction)
  11. Seeing that Frees by Rob Burbea (really advanced but profound)
  12. http://awakeningtoreality.blogspot.com/2007/03/thusnesss-six-stages-of-experience.html (Buddhism > Advaita; ebooks in sidebar)
  13. Books by Robert Bruce such as Psychic Self-Defence and Energy Work
  14. Psychic Witch by Mat Auryn
  15. Dream Yoga by Andrew Holecek (amazing/practical book on lucid dreaming -> dream yoga)
  16. Autobiography of a Yogi
  17. The Practice of Brahmacharya by Swami Sivananda and Soaring Eagle (https://forum.nofap.com/index.php?threads/6-years-clean-rebooting-as-the-best-remedy.135983/) if you haven’t read already
  18. Xunzi trans. by Eric Hutton (final evolution of Confucianism)
Novels (use translators mentioned):
http://gen.lib.rus.ec/fiction/ for foreign literature

  1. Musashi by Eiji Yoshikawa (Taiko is decent as well, but this one was a masterpiece)
  2. Romance of the Three Kingdoms trans. Moss Roberts
  3. The Dream of the Red Chamber trans. David Hawkes (read it in the summer of 2017, profound but not all may see the deeper meaning)
  4. The Nine Cloud Dream trans. Heinz Insu Fenkl
  5. Atlas Shrugged by Ayn Rand (Inspirational for Entrepreneurs, however don’t start adopting this book as economic philosophy. It’s just a novel!)
  6. The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho (read now if you are experiencing an existential crisis)
  7. Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment + The Brothers Karamazov (optional reading; prefer Pevear translation)
  8. Perry Mason and Sherlock Holmes Series (pleasure reading but not useless)
Psychotherapy (never visited a therapist, but found these useful):
  1. Getting Past Your Past by Francine Shapiro (by the founder of EMDR, best practical book on trauma and exercises to resolve it)
  2. Complex PTSD: From Surviving to Thriving (another immensely practical book on recovering from trauma)
  3. Breaking the Cycle by George Collins (best practical workbook on sexual addiction I have read; all should read)
  4. Get out of your mind and into your life by Steven Hayes (Was mentioned in the charisma myth booklist; take control of your thoughts and mind by the founder of ACT)
  5. Mindful Compassion by Paul Gilbert and Choden (prominent researcher on compassion applied to therapy; part one can be boring, but part two on practical exercises is invaluable)
  6. Feeling Book by David Burns (rightfully a classic book on therapy and CBT; read if you are suffering from depression)
  7. Healing Development Trauma by Laurence Heller (best book on the impact of childhood/development trauma but meant for therapists, might explain why we use addiction to cope from childhood memories; google ACE study as well)
  8. The Boy who was raised as a Dog by Bruce Perry (stories about children experiencing trauma. Increases empathy for yourself and others; you realize how childhood trauma affects how a lot of people think and behave)
  9. Whole Again: Healing Your Heart and Rediscovering Your True Self After Toxic Relationships and Emotional Abuse by Jackson MacKenzie (fantastic book on recovering from relationship abuse. Many of us have emotional baggage that fuels coping and addiction loops. Read Healing from Hidden Abuse by Shannon Thomas as well.)
  10. Self-Compassion by Kristen Neff (optional reading, but complimentary)
For biographies, read those of presidents and important leaders. Also about famous/successful individuals. Read all of Ron Chernow’s books. Abuse the Amazon Search Engine and look through their categories. Reading biographies can fundamentally enhance your worldview so you realize that real-life issues are much more nuanced and gray rather than black and white. Also shows how successful people deal with difficult crises and their perspective on life. Especially for public policy. If a President implements an economic policy that has short-term gains, but long-term loss, he has a greater chance of being re-elected. However, short-term loss in favor of long-term gain is the correct policy. Employ critical-thinking! Avoid cable news even if you need to stay informed. Don’t even have a television in my house. Unnecessary. Just read 2 – 3 reputable news sources for 20 minutes max. Sometimes I even avoid the news since there’s too much negativity.
https://www.reddit.com/kundalini/comments/1unyph/a_tantric_perspective_on_the_use_of_sexual_energy/ (tantric meditation technique that actually works; you are supposed to do it for 1 hour. Optional.)
https://www.reddit.com/kundalini/comments/2zn8ev/grounding_201_two_effective_quick_methods/ (grounding method after doing the tantric meditation)
Avoid learning Mantak Chia’s techniques from a book, since some have suffered side-effects to their energetic/biological body. Zero advice for those practicing NEO. Must be hard. Not sure about women, since SR streak is more important. Don’t pick a partner to fulfill some kind of emotional void, or due to societal programming where women are held to be the ultimate goal. Spiritual Enlightenment is the ultimate goal now, but even enlightened people need money for food and shelter.
Youtubers I follow are Graham Stephan, Ryan Serhant, Rupert Spira, and https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCUX1V5UNWP1RUkhLewe77ZQ (cured women objectification for me; wholesome content) although mostly I avoid the website. Easy to loose track of time.
Avoid smoking, alcohol, recreational drug use (https://www.elitedaily.com/wellness/drugs-alcohol-aura-damage/1743959, http://sshc.in/?p=1123 ), casual sex (https://mywakingpath.wordpress.com/tag/aura/; sensitive images but useful), and fast food. Budget your money, and learn how to save as much as possible.
Hope everyone reading this post experiences their definition of success and leads a purposeful life. Will end it by stating two quotes that have inspired and guided me:
“You yourself have to change first, or nothing will change for you!”
― Hideaki Sorachi
“It is not important to be better than someone else, but to be better than you were yesterday.”
― Jigoro Kano (Founder of Judo)

Update 1: Made the instructions regarding super-sped affirmations more clearer.
Update 2: Added the audio file as well to the affirmations link since someone requested it
Update 3: https://starseedsunited.com/negative-entities-and-psychic-attacks (basic article on entities)
Some solutions are posted above. Updated* daily routine:
  1. https://www.reddit.com/kundalini/comments/1xyp5k/a_simple_and_universal_white_light_protection/ (basic psychic self-defence)
  2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Kt9s5tY1YE (at least once everyday; cures sexual dreams and flushes all entities)
  3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yLeubTQv65Q (best shielding subliminal so far; general protection. Listen at least once everyday)
Note: Will continuously update this post based on further clarification.
submitted by RisingSun7799 to pureretention [link] [comments]

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